Self-calibration of Colormetric Parameters in Vision Systems for Autonomous Soccer Robots

  • António J. R. Neves
  • Alina Trifan
  • Bernardo Cunha
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8371)


Vision is an extremely important sense for both humans and robots, providing detailed information about the environment. In the past few years, the use of digital cameras in robotic applications has been significantly increasing. The use of digital cameras as the main sensor allows the robot to capture the relevant information of the surrounding environment and take decisions. A robust vision system should be able to reliably detect objects and present an accurate representation of the world to higher-level processes, not only under ideal light conditions, but also under changing lighting intensity and color balance. To extract information from the acquired image, shapes or colors, the configuration of the colormetric camera parameters, such as exposure, gain, brightness or white-balance, among others, is very important. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for the self-calibration of the most important parameters of digital cameras for robotic applications. The algorithms extract some statistical information from the acquired images, namely the intensity histogram, saturation histogram and information from a black and a white area of the image, to then estimate the colormetric parameters of the camera. We present experimental results with two robotic platforms, a wheeled robot and a humanoid soccer robot, in challenging environments: soccer fields, both indoor and outdoor, that show the effectiveness of our algorithms. The images acquired after calibration show good properties for further processing, independently of the initial configuration of the camera and the type and amount of light of the environment, both indoor and outdoor.


Camera Parameter Robotic Application Soccer Robot Auto Mode Robotic Soccer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Heinemann, P., Sehnke, F., Streichert, F., Zell, A.: Towards a calibration-free robot: The act algorithm for automatic online color training. In: Lakemeyer, G., Sklar, E., Sorrenti, D.G., Takahashi, T. (eds.) RoboCup 2006. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 4434, pp. 363–370. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takahashi, Y., Nowak, W., Wisspeintner, T.: Adaptive recognition of color-coded objects in indoor and outdoor environments. In: Visser, U., Ribeiro, F., Ohashi, T., Dellaert, F. (eds.) RoboCup 2007. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5001, pp. 65–76. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krawczyk, G., Goesele, M., Seidel, H.: Photometric calibration of high dynamic range cameras. Research Report MPI-I-2005-4-005, Max-Planck-Institut für Informatik, Stuhlsatzenhausweg 85, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany (April 2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mayer, G., Utz, H., Kraetzschmar, G.K.: Playing robot soccer under natural light: A case study. In: Polani, D., Browning, B., Bonarini, A., Yoshida, K. (eds.) RoboCup 2003. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 3020, pp. 238–249. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shirvaikar, M.V.: An optimal measure for camera focus and exposure. In: Proc. of the IEEE Southeastern Symposium on System Theory, Atlanta, USA (March 2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nourani-Vatani, N., Roberts, J.: Automatic camera exposure control. In: Proc. of the 2007 Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation, Brisbane, Australia (December 2007)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Neves, A.J.R., Cunha, B., Pinho, A.J.P., Pinheiro, I.: Autonomous configuration of parameters in robotic digital cameras. In: Araujo, H., Mendonça, A.M., Pinho, A.J., Torres, M.I. (eds.) IbPRIA 2009. LNCS, vol. 5524, pp. 80–87. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Neves, A.J.R., Pinho, A.J., Martins, D.A., Cunha, B.: An efficient omnidirectional vision system for soccer robots: from calibration to object detection. Mechatronics 21(2), 399–410 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Trifan, A., Neves, A.J.R., Cunha, B., Lau, N.: A modular real-time vision system for humanoid robots. In: Proceedings of SPIE IS&T Electronic Imaging 2012 (January 2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • António J. R. Neves
    • 1
  • Alina Trifan
    • 1
  • Bernardo Cunha
    • 1
  1. 1.ATRI, IEETA / DETIUniversity of AveiroAveiroPortugal

Personalised recommendations