Advertisement

Immunization Practice in Pediatric Oncology

  • Anurag K. AgrawalEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)

Abstract

The need for vaccination before, during and after chemotherapeutic regimens remains an area of controversy due to the lack of evidence-based guidelines. Although multiple consensus statements and guidelines are available in regard to the timing and necessity of (re)vaccination, these recommendations are variable, leading to significant differences in clinical practice. In this chapter we review the literature in regard to immune status prior to chemotherapy initiation, during chemotherapy and data on immune recovery after completion of therapy for pediatric patients with malignancy. This serves as background for the available evidence on immunization practice prior to, during and after chemotherapy completion. Population-based risk assessment is also a key component of (re)vaccination guidelines; therefore, we review the evidence for active immunization in settings of high disease prevalence. Finally, we review passive and active immunization practice after exposure to disease and vaccination of household contacts.

Keywords

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Seroconversion Rate Immune Recovery Varicella Vaccination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abrahamsson J, Marky I, Mellander L (1995) Immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte response to mitogenic stimulation in children with malignant disease during treatment and follow-up. Acta Paediatr 84:177–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler AL, Casper C, Boeckh M et al (2008) An outbreak of varicella with likely breakthrough disease in a population of pediatric cancer patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 29:866–870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alanko S, Pelliniemi TT, Salmi TT (1992) Recovery of blood B-lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulins after chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer 69:1481–1486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Alanko S, Pelliniemi TT, Salmi TT (1994) Recovery of blood lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulins after treatment of solid tumors in children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 11:33–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alanko S, Salmi TT, Pelliniemi TT (1995) Recovery of natural killer cells after chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and solid tumors. Med Pediatr Oncol 24:373–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Alavi S, Rashidi A, Arzanian MT et al (2010) Humoral immunity against hepatitis B, tetanus, and diphtheria following chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies: a report and review of the literature. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27:188–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Al-Jadiry MF, Al-Khafagi M, Al-Darraji AF et al (2013) High incidence of hepatitis B infection after treatment for paediatric cancer at a teaching hospital in Baghdad. East Mediterr Health J 19:130–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Allen UD (2007) Immunizations for children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49:1102–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Allen JB, Weiner LB (1981) Pneumococcal sepsis in childhood leukemia and lymphoma. Pediatrics 67:292–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Allison JE, Glezen WP, Taber LH et al (1977) Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of bivalent influenza A and monovalent influenza B virus vaccines in high-risk children. J Infect Dis 156:S672–S676Google Scholar
  11. American Academy of Pediatrics (2012a) Active and passive immunization: immunization in special clinical circumstances—immunocompromised children. In: Pickering LK (ed) Red book: 2012 report of the committee on infectious diseases, 29th edn. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove VillageGoogle Scholar
  12. American Academy of Pediatrics (2012b) Summaries of infectious diseases: measles. In: Pickering LK (ed) Red book: 2012 report of the committee on infectious diseases varicella-zoster, 29th edn. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove VillageGoogle Scholar
  13. American Academy of Pediatrics (2012c) Summaries of infectious diseases: infections. In: Pickering LK (ed) Red book: 2012 report of the committee on infectious diseases, 29th edn. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, ILGoogle Scholar
  14. American Academy of Pediatrics (2006) Summaries of infectious diseases: infections. In: Pickering LK (ed) Red book: 2006 report of the committee on infectious diseases, 27th edn. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, ILGoogle Scholar
  15. Asano Y, Yoshikawa T, Suga S et al (1993) Postexposure prophylaxis of varicella in family contact by oral acyclovir. Pediatrics 92:219–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Azuma E, Nagai M, Qi J et al (1998) CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in long-term survivors following intensive chemotherapy in childhood cancers. Med Pediatr Oncol 30:40–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Banatvala JE, Van Damme P (2003) Hepatitis B vaccine—do we need boosters? J Viral Hepat 10:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bate J, Patel SR, Chisholm J et al (2010a) Immunisation practices of paediatric oncology and shared care oncology consultants: a United Kingdom survey. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54:941–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bate J, Yung CF, Hoschler K et al (2010b) Immunogenecity of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in children with cancer in the United Kingdom. Clin Infect Dis 51:e95–e104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Baytan B, Gunes AM, Gumay U (2008) Efficacy of primary hepatitis B immunization in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Indian Pediatr 45:265–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bektas O, Karadeniz C, Oguz A et al (2007) Assessment of the immune response to trivalent split influenza vaccine in children with solid tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49:914–917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Berberoğlu S, Büyükpamkcu M, Sarialioglu F et al (1995) Hepatitis B vaccination in children with cancer. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 12:171–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bhat N, Wright JG, Broder KR et al (2005) Influenza-associated deaths among children in the United States, 2003–2004. N Engl J Med 353:2559–2567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Biggar RJ, Christiansen M, Rostgaard K et al (2009) Immunoglobulin subclass levels in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Int J Cancer 124:2616–2620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bisgard KM, Kao A, Leake J et al (1998) Haemophilus influenzae invasive disease in the United States, 1994–1995: near disappearance of a vaccine-preventable childhood disease. Emerg Infect Dis 4:229–237PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brodtman DH, Rosenthal DW, Redner A et al (2005) Immunodeficiency in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after completion of modern aggressive chemotherapeutic regimens. J Pediatr 146:654–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Brunell PA, Gershon AA, Hughes WT et al (1972) Prevention of varicella in high risk children: a collaborative study. Pediatrics 50:718–722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Brydak LB, Rokicka-Milewska R, Jackowska T (1996) Kinetics of humoral response in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia immunized with influenza vaccine in 1993 in Poland. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 13:231–238Google Scholar
  29. Brydak L, Rokicka-Milewska R, Machala M et al (1998) Immunogenicity of subunit trivalent influenza vaccine in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 17:125–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cakir FB, Timur C, Yoruk A et al (2012) Seroconversion status after single dose and double doses of varicella vaccination in children with leukemia. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 29:191–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Caniza MA, Hunger SP, Schrauder A et al (2012) The controversy of varicella vaccination in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 58:12–16PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Carr S, Allison KJ, Van De Velde L et al (2011) Safety and immunogenicity of live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in children with cancer. J Infect Dis 204:1475–1482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Caver TE, Slobod KS, Flynn PM et al (1998) Profound abnormality of the B/T lymphocyte ratio during chemotherapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia 12:619–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1993) Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP): use of vaccines and immune globulins in persons with altered immunocompetence. MMWR Recomm Rep 42:1–24Google Scholar
  35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) Prevention of varicella: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 56:25Google Scholar
  36. Chaves SS, Haber P, Walton K et al (2008) Safety of varicella vaccination after licensure in the United States: experience from reports to the vaccine adverse event reporting system, 1995–2005. J Infect Dis 197:S170–S177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cheng FW, Leung TF, Chan PK et al (2009) Humoral immune response after post-chemotherapy booster diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine in pediatric oncology patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 52:248–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Cheng FW, Leung TF, Chan PK et al (2010) Recovery of humoral and cellular immunities to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pediatric oncology patients. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27:195–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Cheng FW, Chan PK, Leung WK et al (2011) Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine in paediatric oncology patients: one dose or two doses? [letter]. Br J Haematol 154:408–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cheng FW, Ip M, Chu YY et al (2012) Humoral response to conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in paediatric patients. Arch Dis Child 97:358–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Chilcote RR, Baehner RL, Hammond D (1976) Septicemia and meningitis in children splenectomized for Hodgkin’s disease. N Engl J Med 295:798–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Chisholm JC, Devine T, Charlett A et al (2001) Response to influenza immunization during treatment for cancer. Arch Dis Child 84:496–500PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Crawford NW, Heath JA, Ashley D et al (2010) Survivors of childhood cancer: an Australian audit of vaccination status after treatment. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54:128–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Cristófani LM, Weinberg A, Peixoto V et al (1991) Administration of live attenuated varicella vaccine in children with cancer before starting chemotherapy. Vaccine 9:873–876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. De Vaan GA, van Munster PJ, Bakkeren JA (1982) Recovery of immune function after cessation of maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of childhood. Eur J Pediatr 139:113–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Donaldson SS, Glatstein E, Vosti KL (1978) Bacterial infections in pediatric Hodgkin’s disease. Cancer 41:1949–1958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ecevit Z, Büyükpamukçu M, Kanra G et al (1996) Oka strain live varicella vaccine in children with cancer. Pediatr Infect Dis J 15:169–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ek T, Mellander L, Hahn-Zoric M et al (2004) Intensive treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia reduces immune responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 26:727–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Ek T, Mellander L, Andersson B et al (2005) Immune reconstitution after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is most severely affected in the high risk group. Pediatr Blood Cancer 44:461–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Ek T, Mellander L, Hahn-Zoric M et al (2006) Avidity of tetanus and Hib antibodies after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia—implications for vaccination strategies. Acta Paediatr 95:701–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ek T, Josefson M, Abrahamsson J (2011) Multivariate analysis of the relation between immune dysfunction and treatment intensity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 56:1078–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. El-Chennawi FA, Al-Tonbary YA, Mossad YM et al (2008) Immune reconstitution during maintenance therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, relation to co-existing infection. Hematology 13:203–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. El-Din HM, Loutfy SA, Abdel-Rahman H et al (2012) Measles, mumps, varicella zoster, diphtheria and hepatitis B surface antibody status in pediatric acute leukemic patients. J Blood Disord Transfus S1:S1–S8Google Scholar
  54. Ercan TE, Soycan LY, Apak H et al (2005) Antibody titers and immune response to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 27:273–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Esposito S, Cecinati V, Russo FG et al (2009) Influenza vaccination in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Hum Vaccin 5:430–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Esposito S, Cecinati V, Brescia L et al (2010a) Vaccinations in children with cancer. Vaccine 28:3278–3284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Esposito S, Cecinati V, Scicchitano B et al (2010b) Impact of influenza-like illness and effectiveness of influenza vaccination in oncohematological children who have completed cancer therapy. Vaccine 28:1558–1565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Evans EB, Pollock TM, Cradock-Watson JE et al (1980) Human anti-chickenpox immunoglobulin in the prevention of chickenpox. Lancet 1:354–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Eyrich M, Wiegering V, Lim A et al (2009) Immune function in children under chemotherapy for standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia—a prospective study of 20 paediatric patients. Br J Haematol 147:360–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Feldman S, Hughes WT, Daniel C (1975) Varicella in children with cancer: 77 cases. Pediatrics 80:388–397Google Scholar
  61. Feldman S, Lott L (1987) Varicella in children with cancer: impact of antiviral therapy and prophylaxis. Pediatrics 80:465–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Feldman S, Lott L (1988) Passive immunization against varicella in children receiving chemotherapy. Pediatrics 82:954–955Google Scholar
  63. Feldman S, Gigliotti F, Shenep JL et al (1990) Risk of haemophilus influenzae type b disease in children with cancer and response of immunocompromised leukemic children to a conjugate vaccine. J Infect Dis 161:926–931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Feldman S, Andrew M, Norris M et al (1998) Decline in rates of seropositivity for measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies among previously immunized children treated for acute leukemia. Clin Infect Dis 27:388–390Google Scholar
  65. Fioredda F, Plebani A, Hanau G et al (2005) Re-immunisation schedule in leukaemic children after intensive chemotherapy: a possible strategy. Eur J Haematol 74:20–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fisher JP, Bate J, Hambleton S (2011) Preventing varicella in children with malignancies: what is the evidence? Curr Opin Infect Dis 24:203–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fuks Z, Strober S, Bobrove AM (1976) Long term effects of radiation on T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of patients with Hodgkin’s disease. J Clin Invest 58:803–814PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Galea SA, Sweet A, Beninger P et al (2008) The safety profile of varicella vaccine: a 10-year review. J Infect Dis 197:S165–S169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Ganz PA, Shanley JD, Cherry JD (1978) Responses of patients with neoplastic diseases to influenza virus vaccine. Cancer 42:2244–2247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gershon AA, Steinberg SP (1989) Persistence of immunity to varicella in children with leukemia immunized with live attenuated varicella vaccine. N Engl J Med 320:8892–8897Google Scholar
  71. Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Brunell PA (1974) Zoster immune globulin. A further assessment. N Engl J Med 290:243–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Gelb L et al (1984) Live attenuated varicella vaccine: efficacy for children with leukemia in remission. JAMA 252:355–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gershon AA, Steinberg SP, Gelb L (1986) Live attenuated varicella vaccine use in immunocompromised children and adults. Pediatrics 78:757–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Goldstein SL, Somers MJ, Lande MB et al (2000) Acyclovir prophylaxis of varicella in children with renal disease receiving steroids. Pediatr Nephrol 14:305–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Goossen GM, Kremer LC, van de Wetering MD (2009) Influenza vaccination in children being treated with chemotherapy for cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD006484Google Scholar
  76. Goyal S, Pai SK, Kelkar R et al (1998) Hepatitis B vaccination in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Res 22:193–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Gross PA, Lee H, Wolff J et al (1978) Influenza immunization in immunosuppressed children. J Pediatr 92:30–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Guyatt G, Gutterman D, Baumann MH et al (2006) Grading strength of recommendations and quality of evidence in clinical guidelines: report from an American College of Chest Physicians Task Force. Chest 129:174–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hakim H, Allison KJ, Van De Velde L et al (2012) Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated monovalent 2009 H1N1 influenza A vaccine in immunocompromised children and young adults. Vaccine 30:879–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Halasa N, Englund JA, Nachman S et al (2011) Safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine in mild to moderately immunocompromised children with cancer. Vaccine 29:4110–4115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hanngren K, Falksveden L, Grandien M et al (1983) Zoster immunoglobulin in varicella prophylaxis. A study among high-risk patients. Scand J Infect Dis 15:327–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Heath RB, Malpas JS (1985) Experience with the live Oka-strain varicella vaccine in children with solid tumours. Postgrad Med J 61:107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Heath RB, Malpas JS, Kangro HO et al (1987) Efficacy of varicella vaccine in patients with solid tumours. Arch Dis Child 62:569–572PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hemming VG (2001) Use of intravenous immunoglobulins for prophylaxis or treatment of infectious diseases. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:859–863PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hovi L, Valle M, Siimes M et al (1995) Impaired response to hepatitis B vaccine in children receiving anticancer chemotherapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14:931–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Huang YC, Lin TY, Chiu CH (1995) Acyclovir prophylaxis of varicella after household exposure. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14:152–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hughes P, LaRussa PS, Pearce JM et al (1994) Transmission of varicella-zoster virus from a vaccinee with underlying leukemia, demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction. J Pediatr 124:932–935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ishida Y, Tauchi H, Higaki A et al (1996) Postexposure prophylaxis of varicella in children with leukemia by oral acyclovir. Pediatrics 97:150–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Judelsohn RG, Meyers JD, Ellis RJ et al (1974) Efficacy of zoster immune globulin. Pediatrics 53:476–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kantar M, Çetingül N, Kansoy S et al (2003) Immune deficiencies following cancer treatment in children. J Trop Pediatr 49:286–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kaplan SL, Duckett T, Mahoney DH et al (1992) Immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-tetanus protein conjugate vaccine in children with sickle hemoglobinopathy or malignancies, and after systemic Haemophilus influenzae type b infection. J Pediatr 120:367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kaplan SL, Mason EO, Wald ER et al (2004) Decrease of invasive pneumococcal infections in children among 8 children’s hospitals in the United States after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatrics 113:443–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kavakli K, Cetingul N, Oztop S (1996) Combined administration of hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin in children with cancer. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 13:295–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kersun LS, Reilly A, Coffin SE, Sullivan KE (2013a) Protecting pediatric oncology patients from influenza. Oncologist 18:204–211PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kersun LS, Reilly A, Coffin SE et al (2013b) A prospective study of chemotherapy immunologic effects and predictors of humoral influenza vaccine responses in a pediatric oncology cohort. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 7:1158–1167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Köksal Y, Varan A, Aydin GB (2007) Comparison of accelerated and rapid schedules for monovalent hepatitis B and combined hepatitis A/B vaccines in children with cancer. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 24:587–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kosmidis S, Baka M, Bouhoutsou D et al (2008) Longitudinal assessment of immunological status and rate of recovery following treatment in children with ALL. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50:528–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kostaridou S, Polychronopoulou S, Psarra K et al (2004) Decrease of CD4+ and B-lymphocyte populations is not associated with severe infectious complications in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during maintenance. Int J Hematol 80:354–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kovacs GT, Barany O, Schlick B et al (2008) Late immune recovery in children treated for malignant diseases. Pathol Oncol Res 14:391–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kung FH, Orgel HA, Wallace WW et al (1984) Antibody production following immunization with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in children receiving chemotherapy during remission of malignant disease. Pediatrics 74:86–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kwon HJ, Lee JW, Chung NG et al (2012) Assessment of serologic immunity to diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis after treatment of Korean pediatric hematology and oncology patients. J Korean Med Sci 27:78–83PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Lange B, Shapiro SA, Waldman MT et al (1979) Antibody responses to influenza immunization of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Infect Dis 140:402–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. LaRussa PS, Steinburg S, Meurice F et al (1997) Transmission of vaccine strain varicella-zoster from a healthy adult with vaccine-associated rash to susceptible household contacts. J Infect Dis 176:1072–1075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Leahy TR, Smith OP, Bacon CL et al (2013) Does vaccine dose predict response to the monovalent pandemic H1N1 influenza A vaccine in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia? A single-centre study. Pediatr Blood Cancer 60:1656–1661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lehrnbecher T, Schubert R, Behl M et al (2009) Impaired pneumococcal immunity in children after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 147:700–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Levin MJ (2008) Varicella vaccination of immunocompromised children. J Infect Dis 197:S200–S206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Luczynski W, Stasiak-Barmuta A, Krawczuk-Rybak M (2004) Immunologic monitoring of maintenance therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children—preliminary report. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42:416–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mackall CL, Fleisher TA, Brown MR et al (1995) Age, thymopoiesis, and CD4+ T-lymphocyte regeneration after intensive chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 332:143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Martin-Hernandez E (2000) Acyclovir prophylaxis of varicella in children with nephritic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 15:326–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Matsuzaki A, Suminoe A, Koga Y et al (2005) Immune response after influenza vaccination in children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45:831–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Mavinkurve-Groothuis AM, van der Flier M, Stelma F et al (2013) Absolute lymphocyte count predicts response to new influenza virus H1N1 vaccination in pediatric cancer patients. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:118–121PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mazur B, Szczepański T, Karpe J et al (2006) Decreased numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood after treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Res 30:33–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Meisel R, Toschke AM, Heiligensetzer C et al (2007) Increased risk for invasive pneumococcal diseases in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 137:457–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Meral A, Sevinir B, Günay Ü (2000) Efficacy of immunization against hepatitis B virus infection in children with cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol 35:47–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Moritz B, Eder J, Meister B et al (2001) Intact T-cell regenerative capacity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia after remission induction therapy. Med Pediatr Oncol 36:283–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Moulik NR, Kumar A, Jain A, Jain P (2013) Measles outbreak in a pediatric oncology unit and the role of ribavirin in prevention of complications and containment of the outbreak. Pediatr Blood Cancer 60:e122–e124Google Scholar
  117. Mustafa MM, Buchanan GR, Winick NJ et al (1998) Immune recovery in children with malignancy after cessation of chemotherapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 20:451–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Nevin J, Washko JK, Arnold J (2013) Haemophilus influenzae type b in an immunocompetent, fully vaccinated ALL survivor. Pediatrics 131:e1639–e1642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Nilsson A, De Milito A, Engström P et al (2002) Current chemotherapy protocols for childhood acute leukemia induce loss of humoral immunity to viral vaccination antigens. Pediatrics 109:e91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Ninane J, Latinne D, Heremans-Bracke MT et al (1985) Live varicella vaccine in severely immunodepressed children. Postgrad Med J 61:97–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ogra PL, Sinks LF, Karzon DT (1971) Poliovirus antibody response in patients with acute leukemia. J Pediatr 79:444–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Orange JS, Hossny EM, Weller CR et al (2006) Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in human disease: a review of evidence by members of the Primary Immunodeficiency Committee of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 117:S525–S553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Orenstein W, Heymann D, Ellis R et al (1981) Prophylaxis of varicella in high risk children: response effect of zoster immune globulin. J Pediatr 98:368–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Patel SR, Ortin M, Cohen BJ et al (2007) Revaccination of children after completion of standard chemotherapy for acute leukemia. Clin Infect Dis 44:635–642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Patel SR, Bate J, Borrow R et al (2012) Serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody concentrations in children treated for acute leukaemia. Arch Dis Child 97:46–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Paulides M, Stöhr W, Laws H et al (2011) Antibody levels against tetanus and diphtheria after polychemothearpy for childhood sarcoma: a report from the Late Effects Surveillance System. Vaccine 29:1565–1568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Porter CC, Edwards KM, Zhu Y et al (2004) Immune responses to influenza immunization in children receiving maintenance chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42:36–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Poulsen A, Schmiegelow K, Yssing M (1993) Varicella zoster infections in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma 9:177–192Google Scholar
  129. Reinhardt D, Houliara K, Pekrun A et al (2003) Impact of conventional chemotherapy on levels of antibodies against vaccine-preventable diseases in children treated for cancer. Scand J Infect Dis 35:851–857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Robinson P, Anderson D, Brouwers M et al (2007) Evidence-based guidelines on the use of intravenous immune globulin for hematologic and neurologic conditions. Transfus Med Rev 21:S3–S8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) (2002) Immunisation of the immunocompromised child—best practice statement. London, RCPCHGoogle Scholar
  132. Ruggiero A, Battista A, Coccia P et al (2011) How to manage vaccinations in children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57:1104–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sartori AM (2004) A review of the varicella vaccine in immunocompromised individuals. Int J Infect Dis 8:259–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Schafer AI, Churchill H, Ames P et al (1979) The influence of chemotherapy on response of patients with hematologic malignancies to influenza vaccine. Cancer 43:25–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Schrauder A, Henke-Gendo C, Seidemann K et al (2007) Varicella vaccination in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet 369:1232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Sevinir B, Meral A, Günay Ü et al (2003) Increased risk of chronic hepatitis in children with cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol 40:104–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Shahgholi E, Ehsani MA, Salamati P et al (2010) Immunogenicity of trivalent influenza vaccine in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during maintenance therapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer 54:716–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Shahin K, Lina B, Billaud G et al (2012) Successful H1N1 influenza vaccination of children receiving chemotherapy for solid tumors. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 34:e228–e231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Shenep JL, Peldman S, Gigliotti F (1994) Response of immunocompromised children with solid tumors to a conjugate vaccine for Haemophilus influenzae type b. J Pediatr 125:581–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Shinjoh M, Takahashi T (2009) Varicella zoster exposure on paediatric wards between 2000 and 2007: safe and effective postexposure prophylaxis with oral acyclovir. J Hosp Infect 72:163–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Siber GR (1980) Bacteremias due to Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae: their occurrence and course in children with cancer. Am J Dis Child 134:668–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sinisalo M, Aittoniemi J, Käyhty H et al (2002) Haemophilus influenzae type b antibody concentrations and vaccination responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: predicting factors for response. Leuk Lymphoma 43:1967–1969Google Scholar
  143. Sinisalo M, Vipo J, Itälä M et al (2007) Antibody response to 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Vaccine 26:82–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Smith S, Schiffman G, Karayalcin G et al (1995) Immunodeficiency in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster therapy. J Pediatr 127:68–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Smithson WA, Siem RA, Ritts RE et al (1978) Response to influenza virus vaccine in children receiving chemotherapy for malignancy. J Pediatr 93:632–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Somjee S, Pai S, Kelkar R et al (1999) Hepatitis B vaccination in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of an intensified immunization schedule. Leuk Res 23:365–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Somjee S, Pai S, Parikh P et al (2002) Passive active prophylaxis against hepatitis B in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Res 26:989–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Steinherz PG, Brown AE, Gross PA et al (1980) Influenza immunization of children with neoplastic diseases. Cancer 45:750–756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Suga S, Yoshikawa T, Ozaki T et al (1993) Effect of oral acyclovir against primary and secondary viraemia in incubation period of varicella. Arch Dis Child 69:639–642PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sumaya CV, Williams TE, Brunell PA (1977) Bivalent influenza vaccine in children with cancer. J Infect Dis 156:S656–S660Google Scholar
  151. Sung L, Heurter H, Zokic KM et al (2001) Practical vaccination guidelines for children with cancer. Paediatr Child Health 6:379–383PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Takahashi M, Kamiya H, Baba K et al (1985) Clinical experience with Oka live varicella vaccine in Japan. Postgrad Med J 61:61–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Timitilli A, Bertoluzzo L, Micalizzi C et al (2008) Antivaricella-zoster vaccination in contacts of children receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy: a prospective pilot study. Infez Med 16:144–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Van der Does-van den Berg A, Hermans J, Nagel J et al (1981) Immunity to diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and poliomyelitis in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia after cessation of chemotherapy. Pediatrics 67:222–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Van Tilburg CM, Sanders EA, Rovers MM et al (2006) Loss of antibodies and response to (re-)vaccination in children after treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia: a systematic review. Leukemia 20:1717–1722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Van Tilburg CM, Bierings MB, Berbers GA et al (2012) Impact of treatment reduction for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia on serum immunoglobulins and antibodies against vaccine-preventable disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer 58:701–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Von der Hardt K, Jüngert J, Beck JD et al (2000) Humoral immunity against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis after antineoplastic therapy in children and adolescents—a retrospective analysis. Vaccine 18:2999–3004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Weisman SJ, Cates KL, Allegretta GJ et al (1987) Antibody response to immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide vaccine in children with cancer. J Pediatr 111:727–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Wong-Chew RM, Frías MN, García-León ML et al (2012) Humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza vaccination in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Oncol Lett 4:329–333PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Yen TY, Jou ST, Yang YL et al (2011) Immune response to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus A monovalent vaccine in children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 57:1154–1158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Yetgin S, Tunç B, Koç A et al (2001) Two booster dose hepatitis B virus vaccination in patients with leukemia. Leuk Res 25:647–649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Yetgin S, Tavil B, Aytac S et al (2007) Unexpected protection from infection by two booster hepatitis B virus vaccination in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Res 31:493–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Yu JW, Borkowski A, Danzig L et al (2007) Immune response to conjugated meningococcal C vaccine in pediatric oncology patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer 49:918–923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Zaia J, Levin M, Preblud S et al (1983) Evaluation of varicella-zoster immune globulin: protection of immunosuppressed children after household exposure to varicella. J Infect Dis 147:737–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Zengin E, Sarper N (2009) Humoral immunity to diphtheria, tetanus, measles, and hemophilus influenzae type b in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and response to re-vaccination. Pediatr Blood Cancer 53:967–972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Zignol M, Peracchi M, Tredello G et al (2004) Assessment of humoral immunity to poliomyelitis, tetanus, hepatitis B, measles, rubella, and mumps in children after chemotherapy. Cancer 101:635–641PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hematology/OncologyChildren’s Hospital and Research Center OaklandOaklandUSA

Personalised recommendations