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Nausea and Vomiting

  • Tiffany ChangEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)

Abstract

Nausea and vomiting induced by antineoplastic therapy can significantly affect quality of life and continues to be a prevalent and distressing treatment-related issue faced by children with cancer and their families. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) can result in metabolic derangements, nutritional depletion and anorexia, esophageal tears, deterioration of mental and performance status, prolonged hospitalizations, and potential poor compliance or withdrawal from anticancer treatment. Despite advances in pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management of nausea and vomiting, prevention of CINV remains a particular issue in the pediatric population where existing guidelines are constrained by lack of robust evidence. Few studies have been carried out in children, and results obtained in adults cannot be directly applied to young children since metabolism and side effects of drugs differ. The pathophysiology of CINV, principles of antiemetic prophylaxis, emetogenicity of chemotherapy, classes of antiemetic agents, and current guidelines for prevention and treatment of CINV in children are addressed in this chapter. Specific attention is also given to nonpharmacologic strategies and approaches to anticipatory, breakthrough, and radiation-induced nausea and vomiting. This chapter provides health care providers with a summary of evidence-based information with the goal of guiding optimal emetic control in pediatric cancer patients.

Keywords

National Comprehensive Cancer Network Emetogenic Chemotherapy Antiemetic Prophylaxis Acute Emesis Anticipatory Nausea 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of PediatricsBenioff Children’s Hospital, University of California-San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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