Asynchronous Evolution by Reference-Based Evaluation: Tertiary Parent Selection and Its Archive

  • Tomohiro Harada
  • Keiki Takadama
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8599)


This paper proposes a novel asynchronous reference-based evaluation (named as ARE) for an asynchronous EA that evolves individuals independently unlike general EAs that evolve all individuals at the same time. ARE is designed for an asynchronous evolution by tertiary parent selection and its archive. In particular, ARE asynchronously evolves individuals through a comparison with only three of individuals (i.e., two parents and one reference individual as the tertiary parent). In addition, ARE builds an archive of good reference individuals. This differ from synchronous evolution in EAs in which selection involves comparison with all population members. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of ARE, by applying it to some standard problems used in Linear GP that aim being to minimize the execution step of machine-code programs. We compare GP using ARE (ARE-GP) with steady state (synchronous) GP (SSGP) and our previous asynchronous GP (Tierra-based Asynchronous GP: TAGP). The experimental results have revealed that ARE-GP not only asynchronously evolves the machine-code programs, but also outperforms SSGP and TAGP in all test problems.


Genetic programming asynchronous evolution machine-code program 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomohiro Harada
    • 1
    • 2
  • Keiki Takadama
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of Electro-CommunicationsChofuJapan
  2. 2.Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science DCJapan

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