Comparison of Multimodal Notifications During Telesurgery
This paper examines the utility of multimodal feedback during telesurgery to notify surgeons of excessive force application. Average puncture forces were characterized for varied thicknesses of an artificial membrane, and human operators then attempted to apply a maximum force to the membranes without causing a puncture via an experimental telesurgical apparatus. Operators were notified via different sensory modalities when the force exerted by the tool-tip exceeded a pre-established force margin, defined as a set percentage of the average puncture force. Various combinations of auditory and vibrotactile notifications both with and without force feedback were compared in order to investigate the relationship between feedback modality, force margin, and puncture force. Factor screening results identify multiple two-factor interactions as having statistically significant effects on both the maximum applied force and task completion time, warranting further investigation. Notifications of any type decreased both response variables for operators who relied on them.
KeywordsHaptics Multimodal feedback Keyhole surgery Teleoperation Telesurgery
The authors wish to thank Kiran Grant for his assistance with this work.
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