Dry Eye pp 45-50 | Cite as

Artificial Tears

  • Renato AmbrósioJr
  • Fernando Faria Correia
  • Isaac Ramos
  • Marcella Salomão
Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)


Dry eye is one of the most frequent conditions seen by ophthalmologists. Symptoms with variable frequency and intensity, such as ocular irritation, foreign body sensation, photophobia, and blurred vision, might happen and may have and impact in quality of life.

Regarding dry eye diagnosis there is, today, a variety of tests including minimally invasive tests such as dry eye questionnaires and invasive tests such as the use of vital stainings.

The mainstay treatment of dry eye or dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) is tear replacement with artificial tears (AT). Understanding the properties of the different compounds of the artificial tears and the specific deficiency, each patient has optimized AT selection and patient benefit.


Ocular Surface Benzalkonium Chloride Artificial Tear Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Topical Cyclosporine 
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Compliance with Ethical Requirements

Conflict of Interest

Authors Fernando Faria Correia, Isaac Ramos, Marcella Salomão, and Renato Ambrósio Jr declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animals and Humans

“No animal or human studies were carried out by the authors for this article.”


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renato AmbrósioJr
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fernando Faria Correia
    • 2
    • 4
  • Isaac Ramos
    • 2
    • 5
  • Marcella Salomão
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Cornea and Refractive SurgeryInstituto de Olhos Renato AmbrósioRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Rio de Janeiro Corneal Tomography and Biomechanics Study GroupRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyFederal University of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  5. 5.Cataract and Refractive SurgeryHospital de Olhos Santa Luzia, Gruta de LourdesMaceióBrazil

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