The Phytophthora sojae Genome Sequence: Foundation for a Revolution

Abstract

Phytophthora sojae is a soil-borne microorganism and a plant pathogen that causes stem and root rot of soybean. P. sojae is one of the ~120 species of plant pathogenic eukaryotes within the genus Phytophthora. These organisms are oomycetes, fungus-like organisms in the kingdom Stramenopila. Together with members of related genera such as Pythium, Peronospora, and Albugo, these organisms cause highly destructive diseases of plants of importance to agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and natural ecosystems. The draft genome sequence of P. sojae, together with that of the forest pathogen P. ramorum, was completed in 2004 and published in 2006. These were the first oomycete genomes sequenced, and have provided a resource of information that has revolutionized our understanding of oomycete infection mechanisms, and propelled oomycete research to the forefront of studies of molecular plant-microbe interactions. Highlights of insights that have emerged from the genome sequence of P. sojae and other oomycetes include: a bipartite genome organization whereby rapidly evolving genes involved in infection are located in dynamic, transposon-rich regions while highly conserved housekeeping genes are located in stable gene-rich regions; two classes of effector proteins that can cross into the cytoplasm of host plant cells to suppress immunity; the role of epigenetic variation in oomycete pathogen adaptation; and the role of transkingdom horizontal gene transfer in introducing key virulence factors into the genomes of plant pathogenic oomycetes.

Keywords

Fermentation Lipase Germinate Compaction NADPH 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Jeannine Cropley for manuscript assistance. BMT was supported by grant 2011-68004-30104 from the Agriculture and Food Research Institute of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture of the USDA; MG was supported by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada GRDI program.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany and Plant Pathology and Center for Genome Research and BiocomputingOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Agriculture and Agri-Food CanadaLondonCanada

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