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Pyrenophora tritici-repentis: A Plant Pathogenic Fungus with Global Impact

  • Lynda M. CiuffettiEmail author
  • Viola A. Manning
  • Iovanna Pandelova
  • Justin D. Faris
  • Timothy L. Friesen
  • Stephen E. Strelkov
  • Genevieve L. Weber
  • Stephen B. Goodwin
  • Thomas J. Wolpert
  • Melania Figueroa
Chapter

Abstract

Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr), causal agent of tan spot of wheat, is a necrotrophic fungus that presents an increasing threat to wheat production due to its rapid, global expansion. Despite its homothallic nature, Ptr populations have high genetic diversity, which positively impacts host range and virulence. Pathogenicity by Ptr is attributable to the production of host-selective toxins (HSTs) and follows an inverse gene-for-gene mechanism, in which HSTs are recognized by unique single dominant genes that confer both toxin-sensitivity and disease susceptibility. Studies addressing the mechanism of action of Ptr HSTs have unveiled both commonalities and complexities of the host response to these toxins. Resistance-like host responses triggered by the HSTs support the emerging hypothesis that necrotrophic pathogens exploit the host defense response as a mechanism to induce host cell death and ensure colonization. Recent advances in sequencing technology have facilitated the comparison of the genetic makeup of pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of Ptr. Such comparisons are providing insights into the genetic diversity of the pathogen and the mechanisms that dictate the increase in virulence and incidence of this important pathogen. Comparative genome analysis has also provided evidence that transposable elements (TEs) play a crucial role in genome re-arrangement and expansion, which contributes to the genomic flexibility to create and diversify effectors.

Keywords

Mitochondrial Genome Reference Genome Pathogenic Race Repeat Induce Point Repeat Induce Point Mutation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge the funding agencies that provided generous support for the research of their primary work cited in this chapter. Funding from the National Research Initiative of the USDA Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service Competitive Grants Program, the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, and the National Science Foundation to LMC; funding from the USDA Agricultural Research Service and Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture to JDF; funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the A.W. Henry Endowment Fund (University of Alberta) to SES; funding from the USDA Agricultural Research Service to SBG; funding from a National Science Foundation Minority Postdoctoral Fellowship to MF. We would like to thank Dr. L.-J. Ma and the Broad Institute and Dr. I. Grigoriev and the US Joint Genome Institute for productive collaborations and sequencing of the Ptr reference genome (isolate Pt-1C-BFP) and Ptr isolates, DW7 and SD20, respectively. We would like to thank Nathan Miller for original artwork included in Fig. 1.1A.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lynda M. Ciuffetti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Viola A. Manning
    • 2
  • Iovanna Pandelova
    • 2
  • Justin D. Faris
    • 3
  • Timothy L. Friesen
    • 3
  • Stephen E. Strelkov
    • 4
  • Genevieve L. Weber
    • 2
  • Stephen B. Goodwin
    • 5
  • Thomas J. Wolpert
    • 1
  • Melania Figueroa
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Botany and Plant Pathology and Center for Genome Research and BiocomputingOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Botany and Plant PathologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  3. 3.Cereals Crop Research Unit, Agricultural Research ServiceU.S Department of AgricultureFargoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional ScienceUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  5. 5.Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit, Agricultural Research ServiceU.S Department of AgricultureWest LafayetteUSA
  6. 6.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA

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