The lacrimal apparatus consists of the major and minor lacrimal glands and the nasolacrimal drainage system. The minor (accessory) lacrimal glands include the glands of Krause and Wölfring. The mucinous layer of tears is secreted by the conjunctival goblet cells and the oily secretions are produced by the meibomian glands. Infectious dacryoadenitis is caused by primary endogenous infection and rarely by organisms ascending through the ductules. Causes of infectious dacryoadenitis include viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.
Canaliculitis is a condition characterized by infection of the upper or lower canaliculus. The causes of canaliculitis include bacteria, fungi, viruses and Chlamydia. The most common cause of canaliculitis is Actinomyces israelii. Dacryocystitis is infection of the nasolacrimal sac and is usually caused by obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. It is the most common infection of the lacrimal apparatus. The causes of acute dacryocystitis include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus infuenzae, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus species. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and fungal infections are rare causes of infections of the lacrimal sac. Chlamydia trachomatis may cause dacryocystitis leading to mucosal fibrosis and obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct.
Appropriate therapy may prevent complications of infections of the lacrimal system.
Yuksel D, Hazirolan D, Sungur G, Duman S. Actinomyces canaliculitis and its surgical treatment. Int Ophthalmol. 2012;2(2):183–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kamal S, Bodh SA, Goel R, Kumar S. Clinical significance of microbial growth on the surfaces of silicone tubes removed from dacryocystorhinostomy patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153(1):189–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ban Y, Ideta S, Dogru M, Ogawa Y, Goto E, Shimazaki J. Surgical management of severe canaliculitis due to intracanalicular plug migration using fish-hook-type retractors: a report of two patients. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2011;55(1):68–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joganathan V, Mehta P, Murray A, Durrani OM. Complications of intracanalicular plugs: a case series. Orbit. 2010;29(5):271–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Varley CD, Gross ND, Marx DP, Winthrop KL. Tuberculosis of the nasolacrimal duct. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;27(5):e129–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moscovici BK, Romero IL, Vital Filho J, Bison SH. Epstein-Barr virus bilateral dacryoadenitis: case report. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2009;72(6):826–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barros MB, Costa DL, Schubach TM, do Valle AC, Lorenzi NP, Teixeira JL, Schubach Ade O. Endemic of zoonotic sporotrichosis: profile of cases in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27(3):246–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Palma P, Ravalli L, Modestino R, Grisanti F, Casillo F, Marzola A. Primary lacrimal sac B-cell immunoblastic lymphoma simulating an acute dacryocystitis. Orbit. 2003;22(3):171–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marchese-Ragona R, Marioni G, Staffieri A, de Filippis C. Acute infectious mononucleosis presenting with dacryoadenitis and tonsillitis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2002;80:345–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mawn LA, Sanon A, Conlon MR, Nerad JA. Pseudomonas dacryoadenitis secondary to a lacrimal gland ductule stone. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997;13:135–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouza E, Merino P, Muñoz P, Sanchez-Carrillo C, Yáñez J, Cortés C. Ocular tuberculosis. A prospective study in a general hospital. Medicine (Baltimore). 1997;76:53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Levin LA, Avery R, Shore JW, Woog JJ, Baker AS. The spectrum of orbital aspergillosis: a clinicopathological review. Surv Ophthalmol. 1996;41:142–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar