Frameworks and Reference Architectures

  • Kurt Sandkuhl
  • Janis Stirna
  • Anne Persson
  • Matthias Wißotzki
Part of the The Enterprise Engineering Series book series (TEES)


Within the field of Enterprise Modeling, substantial work has been spent on defining frameworks and architectures. In comparison to EM methods (see Chap. 13), frameworks and architectures do not focus on procedures for the actual modeling process, notations, or modeling languages, but they address the modeling domain or the results of the modeling process. The frameworks and reference architectures introduced in this chapter are Zachman’s Framework, GERAM, and TOGAF.


Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Modeling Reference Architecture Architecture Framework Information System Architecture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aier S, Riege C, Winter R (2008) Unternehmensarchitektur—Literaturüberblick und Stand der Praxis. Wirtschaftsinformatik 50(4):292–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Department of Defense (2007) Architecture framework version 1.5. Vol I: Definitions and guidelines, 23 April 2007. DoD Architecture Framework Working GroupGoogle Scholar
  3. Glissmann SM, Sanz J (2011) An approach to building effective enterprise architectures. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE. pp 1–10Google Scholar
  4. Harrison D, Varveris L (2004) TOGAF: establishing itself as the definitive method for building enterprise architectures in the commercial worldGoogle Scholar
  5. Josey A et al (2009) TOGAFTM Version 9, A pocket guide. Van Haren, Zaltbommel, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  6. Keller W (2012) TOGAF 9.1 Quick start guide for IT enterprise architects, Version 0.9a, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  7. Lankhorst M et al (2009) Enterprise architecture at work: modelling, communication and analysis, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin, London, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lillehagen F, Krogstie J (2008) Active knowledge modeling of enterprises. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-540-79415-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ministry of Defense (2008) MOD architectural framework, Version 1.2, 23 June 2008, Office of Public Sector Information,
  10. Sessions R (2007) Comparison of the top four enterprise architecture methodologies. Object Watch Inc., Houston, TX, Accessed 18 June 2011Google Scholar
  11. Temnenco V (2007) TOGAF or not TOGAF: extending enterprise architecture beyond RUPGoogle Scholar
  12. The Open Group (2011) TOGAF® Version 9.1.
  13. Weismann R (2011) An Important of TOGAF® Version 9.1,, accessed 24.04.14
  14. Williams TJ (1995) Development of GERAM, a generic enterprise reference architecture and enterprise integration methodology, Integrated Manufacturing Systems Engineering. Springer US, New York, NY, pp 279–288Google Scholar
  15. Zachman JA (1987) A framework for information systems architecture. IBM Syst J 26(3):276–292, IBM Publication G321-5298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zachman JA (2003) The Zachman framework: a primer for enterprise engineering and manufacturing (electronic book). Available through

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Sandkuhl
    • 1
  • Janis Stirna
    • 2
  • Anne Persson
    • 3
  • Matthias Wißotzki
    • 1
  1. 1.University of RostockRostockGermany
  2. 2.Stockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  3. 3.University of SkövdeSkövdeSweden

Personalised recommendations