Approaches to Measure HGDI

  • Xiaoxi Li
  • Ning Cai
  • Yang Liu
Part of the Current Chinese Economic Report Series book series (CCERS)


To ensure the comparability of each country in green development level, all HGDI indicators we adopt are relative indicators, which can be divided into two specific categories. One is intensity indicator which is a ratio between one statistic measurement and another reference measurement (such as population, area, and volume). Employing such indicators avoids the influence of differences in population, area, etc. on aggregate-level indicators. For instance, we use such indicators for the measurements of energy efficiency, climate change, etc. The other is the structural indicator which displays the components in relation to the whole. We use this type of indicator to measure the extent of soundness of each country in the fields of forest area, terrestrial protected area, biodiversity, etc. or to evaluate the effectiveness of government efforts in improving drinking water, sanitary facilities and other public areas. Obviously, the relative indicators also allow the effective calculation among different dimensional indicators.


Relative Indicator Inequality Aversion Environmental Sustainability Index Environmental Performance Index Improve Drinking Water 
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  1. Atkinson AB, Bourguignon F (2009) Handbook of income distribution, vol 1, Chinese Translation. Economic Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  2. Human Development Report (2010) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
  3. WHO (2006) WHO air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, Global update 2005. World Health Organization, Geneva. Retrieved online at

Copyright information

© Beijing Normal University Press & Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Economics and Resource ManagementBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

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