Retinoblastoma: Staging and Grouping
A commonly used tumor classification is essential in order to plan initial treatment, determine prognosis, assess treatment response, compare outcomes, and plan clinical trials. Berman maintains that for tumor classifications to be successful, they must reflect clinical reality and must be changed as information is accrued. Almost never does the staging of the tumor rest solely with the subspecialty surgeon. It usually results from interaction between pathologists and oncologists. In almost all solid childhood malignancies, except retinoblastoma, survival of the patient is the sole end point against which to assess treatment efficacy and side effects.
KeywordsEurope Retina Aires Retinoblastoma Berman
- 6.AJCC. Retinoblastoma. 6th ed. New York: Springer; 2002.Google Scholar
- 7.Wolff J, Boesel C, Ellsworth R. Extraocular retinoblastoma. Childrens Cancer Study Group Protocol CCSG 962. 1978.Google Scholar
- 8.Grabowski E, Abramson DH. Intraocular and extraocular retinoblastoma. Hematol Oncol Clin N Am. 1978;1:721–35.Google Scholar
- 13.Sastre X, Chantada GL, Doz F, et al. Proceedings of the consensus meetings from the International Retinoblastoma Staging Working Group on the pathology guidelines for the examination of enucleated eyes and evaluation of prognostic risk factors in retinoblastoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009;133(8):1199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar