Retinoblastoma: Staging and Grouping



A commonly used tumor classification is essential in order to plan initial treatment, determine prognosis, assess treatment response, compare outcomes, and plan clinical trials. Berman maintains that for tumor classifications to be successful, they must reflect clinical reality and must be changed as information is accrued. Almost never does the staging of the tumor rest solely with the subspecialty surgeon. It usually results from interaction between pathologists and oncologists. In almost all solid childhood malignancies, except retinoblastoma, survival of the patient is the sole end point against which to assess treatment efficacy and side effects.


Subretinal Fluid Intraocular Tumor Anchorage Independence Assess Treatment Efficacy Laser Consolidation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology and PediatricsKeck School of Medicine, University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Retinoblastoma ProgramChildrens Hospital Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Hemato-oncology DepartmentHospital JP GarrahanBuenos AiresArgentina

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