Advertisement

Die experimentelle Poliomyelitis und ihre Bedeutung für das Studium der Pathogenese

  • J. D. Verlinde
Conference paper
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 33)

Zusammenfassung

In der Entwicklung der experimentellen Poliomyelitisforschung sind 3 Phasen zu unterscheiden. Die erste hat angefangen mit der gelungenen Übertragung der Poliomyelitis auf Affen durch Landsteiner und Popper (1909), Landsteiner und Levaditi (1909) und Landsteiner und Prasek (1909). Die 2. Phase nahm ihren Anfang mit der Übertragung des Lansing-Stammes auf Nagetiere durch Armstrong (1939a, 1939b) und die dritte wurde eingeleitet durch die Entdeckung von Enders, Weller und Robbins (1949), daß das Poliomyelitisvirus sich in Kulturen extraneuraler Gewebe ausgezeichnet vermehren kann.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Aisenberg, M. S., and F. C. Grubb: Poliomyelitis induced by inoculation of tooth pulp cavities. J. Bact. 46, 311 (1943).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong, CH.: The experimental transmission of poliomyelitis to the eastern cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus hispidus. Publ. Hlth Rep. (Wash.) 54, 1719 (1939a).Google Scholar
  3. Armstrong, CH.: Successful transfer of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus from the cotton rat to the white mouse. Publ. Hlth Rep. (Wash.) 54, 2302 (1939b).Google Scholar
  4. Aronson, S. M., and G. Shwartzman: Histopathogenesis of cortisone-altered experimental poliomyelitis. Observations on the Syrian hamster inoculated intracerebrally with strain Mefi Amer. J. Path. 27, 381 (1953).Google Scholar
  5. Aycock, W. L.: Alterations in autarceologic susceptibility to experimental poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 34, 573 (1936).Google Scholar
  6. Blanc, G., and L. A. Martin: Réceptivité du lapin au virus de la poliomyélite épidémique. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 227, 242 (1948).Google Scholar
  7. Bodian, D.: The virus, the nerve cell and paralysis. A study of experimental poliomyelitis in the spinal cord. Bull. Johns. Hopk. Hosp. 83, 1 (1948).Google Scholar
  8. Bodian, D.: Wallingford poliomyelitis virus. Another strain of the Lansing type, infective in rodents. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 70, 1 (1949).Google Scholar
  9. Bodian, D.: A reconsideration of the pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. Amer. J. Hyg. 55, 414 (1952a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bodian, D.: Pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. Amer. J. Publ. Health 42, 1388 (1952b).Google Scholar
  11. Bodian, D.: Viremia in experimental poliomyelitis. I. General aspects of infection after intravascular inoculation with strains of high and of low invasiveness. Amer. J. Hyg. 60, 339 (1954a).Google Scholar
  12. Bodian, D.: Viremia in experimental poliomyelitis. II. Viremia and the mechanism of the „provoking“ effect of injections or trauma. Amer. J. Hyg. 60, 358 (1954b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bodian, D.: Emerging concept of poliomyelitis infection. Science 122, 105 (1955a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bodian, D.: Viremia, invasiveness and influence of injections. Ann. N Y. Acad. Sci. 61, 877 (1955b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bodian, D.: Poliovirus in chimpanzee tissues after virus feeding. Amer. J. Hyg. 64, 181 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bodian, D., and H. A. Howe: Neuronal pathways as determining factors in the dissemination of poliomyelitis in the central nervous system. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 41, 540 (1939).Google Scholar
  17. Bodian, D., and H. A. Howe: Experimental studies on intraneural spread of poliomyelitis virus. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 68, 248 (1941a).Google Scholar
  18. Bodian, D., and H. A. Howe: The rate of progression of poliomyelitis virus in nerves. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 69, 79 (1941b).Google Scholar
  19. Bodian, D., and H. A. Howe: The significance of lesions in peripheral ganglia in chimpanzee and human poliomyelitis. J. exp. Med. 85, 231 (1947).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Brodie, M., and A. R. Elvidge: The portal of entry and transmission of the virus of poliomyelitis. Science 79, 235 (1934).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brodie, M., A. R. Elvidge, and S. B. Wortis: Experimental poliomyelitis. Cytologic studies of the cerebrospinal fluid and the respiratory metabolism of the excised spinal cord and brain. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chicago) 32, 1159 (1934).Google Scholar
  22. Burnet, F. M., and A. V. Jackson: Poliomyelitis. Spread of poliomyelitis virus in cynomolgus monkeys, with particular reference to infection by the pharyngeal-intestinal route. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 18, 361 (1940).Google Scholar
  23. Burnet, F. M., A. V. Jackson and E. G. Robertson: Poliomyelitis. Intraocular inoculation as a standard method for the demonstration of neutralizing antibodies. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 17, 253 (1939a).Google Scholar
  24. Burnet, F. M., A. V. Jackson and E. G. Robertson: Poliomyelitis. Use of Macacus cynomolgus as an experimental animal. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 17, 375 (1939b).Google Scholar
  25. Cabasso, V., M. R. Stebbins, R. M. Dutcher, A. W. Moyer and H. R. Cox: Poliomyelitis. Iii. Propagation of Mefi strain of poliomyelitis virus in developing chick embryo by allantoic inoculation. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 81, 525 (1952).Google Scholar
  26. Casais, J., P. K. Olitsky and R. O. Anslow: Adaptation of a Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus to newborn mice. J. exp. Med. 94, 111 (1951).Google Scholar
  27. Clark, P. F., and H. L. Amoss: Intraspinous infection in experimental poliomyelitis. J. exp. Med. 19, 217 (1914).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Clark, P. F., H. L. Amoss, F. R. Fraser and H. L. Amoss: The relation to the blood of the virus of epidemic poliomyelitis. J. exp. Med. 19, 223 (1914).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Clark, P. F., H. L. Amoss, F. R. Fraser and H. L. Amoss: Committee on Nomenclature of the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. Science 108, 701 (1948).Google Scholar
  30. Curley, F. J., and W. L. Aycock: The effect of stilbestrol on resistance to experimental poliomyelitis. Endocrinology 39, 414 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dalldorf, G.: Neuropathogenicity of group A Coxsackie viruses. J. exp. Med. 106, 69 (1957).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dalldorf, G., and G. M. Sickles: An unidentified filtrable agent isolated from the feces of children with paralysis. Science 108, 61 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dick, G. W. A.: Persistence of Brunhilde poliomyelitis virus in rodent brain without evidence of adaptation. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 74, 591 (1950).Google Scholar
  34. Dick, G. W. A., and D. S. Dane: Vaccination against poliomyelitis with live virus vaccines. Iii. The evaluation of TN and SM virus vaccines. Brit. med. J. 1957, No 5010, 70.Google Scholar
  35. Dobberstein, J.: Histopathologie des Zentralnervensystems bei der Poliomyelitis des Schweines (Ansteckende Schweinelähme, Teschener Krankheit). Z. Infekt.-Kr. Haustiere 59, 54 (1942).Google Scholar
  36. Dulbecco, R., and M. Vogt: Plaque formation and isolation of pure lines with poliomyelitis viruses. J. exp. Med. 99, 167 (1954).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Enders, J. F., T. H. Weller and F. C. Robbins: Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human embryonic tissues. Science 109, 85 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eschenbrenner, A. B.: The pathology of type I poliomyelitis in the mouse. Amer. J. Path. 32, 335 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Faber, H. K.: The pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. Pediatrics 17, 278 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Faber, H. K., and L. Dong: Studies on entry and egress of poliomyelitic infection. Vii. Early lesions in peripheral ganglia after simple feeding: with comments on the possible value of immunization in preventing neural entry. J. exp. Med. 100, 321 (1954).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Faber, H. K., and L. Dong: Studies on entry and egress of poliomyelitis infection. Viii. The relation of viremia to invasion of the central nervous system. J. exp. Med. 101, 383 (1955).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Faber, H. K., L. Dong, and L. P. Gebhardt: Localization of the virus of poliomyelitis in the central nervous system during the pre-paralytic period after intranasal instillation. J. exp. Med. 57, 933 (1933).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Faber, H. K., L. Dong, L. P. Gebhardt, R. C. Mcnaught, R. J. Silverberg and L. Dong: Experimental production of post-tonsillectomy bulbar poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 77, 532 (1951).Google Scholar
  44. Faber, H. K., L. Dong, L. P. Gebhardt, and R. J. Silverberg: Pathway of invasion in a cynomolgus monkey after oral application of poliomyelitis virus. Science 96, 473 (1942).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Faber, H. K., L. Dong, L. P. Gebhardt and L. Dong: Excretion of poliomyelitis virus. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 66, 103 (1947).Google Scholar
  46. Faber, H. K., L. Dong, L. P. Gebhardt and L. Dong: Poliomyelitis in Philippine cynomolgus monkeys after simple feeding. Amer. J. Hyg. 48, 94 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Faber, H. K., L. Dong, L. P. Gebhardt and L. Dong: Studies on entry and egress of poliomyelitic infection. V. Entry after simple feeding: with notes on viremia. J. exp. Med. 97, 69 (1953).Google Scholar
  48. Faber, H. K., L. Dong, L. P. Gebhardt, L. A. Luz and L. Dong: Excretion of poliomyelitis virus: experimental observations. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 80, 867 (1950a).Google Scholar
  49. Faber, H. K., L. Dong, L. P. Gebhardt, L. A. Luz and L. Dong: Studies on entry and egress of poliomyelitic infection. Iii. Excretion of virus during the presymptomatic period in parenterally inoculated monkeys. J. exp. Med. 67, 462 (1950b).Google Scholar
  50. Fairbrother, R. W., and E. W. Hurst: Pathogenesis of, and propagation of virus in, experimental poliomyelitis. J. Path. Bact. 33, 17 (1930).Google Scholar
  51. Findlay, G. M., and E. M. Howard: Non-specific shock in experimental poliomyelitis. J. Path. Bact. 62, 371 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Flexner, S.: Experimental poliomyelitis. Pediatrics 22, 477 (1910).Google Scholar
  53. Flexner, S.: Respiratory versus gastro-intestinal infection in poliomyelitis. J. exp. Med. 63, 209 (1936).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Flexner, S., and P. F. Clark: A note on the mode of infection in epidemic poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 10, 1 (1913).Google Scholar
  55. Flexner, S., P. F. Clark and A. R. Dochez: Experimental poliomyelitis in monkeys; survival of the poliomyelitis virus in the stomach and intestine. J. Amer. med. Ass. 59, 273 (1912).Google Scholar
  56. Flexner, S., P. F. Clark and F. R. Fraser: Epidemic poliomyelitis. J. Amer. med. Ass. 60, 201 (1913).Google Scholar
  57. Flexner, S., P. F. Clark and P. A. Lewis: The transmission of poliomyelitis to monkeys. J. Amer. med. Ass. 53, 1639, 1913 (1909).Google Scholar
  58. Flexner, S., P. F. Clark and P. A. Lewis: Experimental epidemic poliomyelitis in monkeys. J. Amer. med. Ass. 54, 1140–1780 (1910).Google Scholar
  59. Flexner, S., P. F. Clark and P. A. Lewis: Experimental epidemic poliomyelitis in monkeys. J. exp. Med. 12, 227 (1910).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Flexner, S., P. F. Clark and H. Noouchi: Demonstration of cultures of the virus of poliomyelitis. Proc. N.Y. path. Soc. 13, 106 (1913).Google Scholar
  61. Fox, J. P., H. M. Gelfaxn, D. R. LE Blanc and D. P. Conwell: Studies on the development of natural immunity to poliomyelitis in Louisiana. I. Overall plan, methods and observations as to patterns of seroimmunity in the study group. Amer. J. Hyg. 65, 344 (1957).Google Scholar
  62. Frauchiger, E., and W. Hofmann: Experimentelle Poliomyelitis-Übertragungen auf Rinder. Schweiz. med. Wschr. 68, 1140 (1938).Google Scholar
  63. Gebhardt, L. P., and J. G. Bachtold: Reproducible oral infection rates in monkeys with the Mahoney strain (type 1) of poliomyelitis virus. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 83, 807 (1953).Google Scholar
  64. Gelfand, H. M.: Natural infection with poliomyelitis viruses and other enteric viruses of man. J. Louisiana med. Soc. 109, 237 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. German, W. J., and J. D. Trask: Cutaneous infectivity in experimental poliomyelitis. Increased susceptibility after neurosurgical procedures. J. exp. Med. 68, 125 (1938).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gildemeister, E.: Über die Züchtung des Poliomyelitisvirus im künstlichen Nährmedium. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 59, 877 (1933).Google Scholar
  67. Gordon, F. B.: Susceptibility of muskrats and other rodents to poliomyelitis virus (Lansing strain). J. infect. Dis. 76, 155 (1945).Google Scholar
  68. Habel, K., and L. N. Loomis: Coxsackie A7 virus and the Russian „poliovirus type 4“. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 95, 597 (1957).Google Scholar
  69. Haber, P.: Mécanisme de la propagation centripète du virus poliomyélitique après suppression opératoire du bulbe olfactif. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 120, 761 (1935).Google Scholar
  70. Horstmann, D.: Acute poliomyelitis. J. Amer. med. Ass. 142, 236 (1950).Google Scholar
  71. Horstmann, D. D. M.: Poliomyelitis virus in blood of orally infected monkeys and chimpanzees. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 79, 417 (1952a).Google Scholar
  72. Horstmann, D. D. M.: Experiments with Teschen disease (virus encephalomyelitis of swine). J. Immunol. 69, 379 (1952b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Horstmann, D. D. M., and E. E. Manuelidis: Russian Coxsackie A, virus (AB IV strain). Neuropathogenicity and comparison with poliovirus. J. Immunol. 81, 32 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Horstmann, D. D. M., J. R. Paul, J. L. Melnick and J. V. Deutsch: Infection induced by oral administration of attenuated poliovirus to persons possessing homotypic antibody. J. exp. Med. 106, 159 (1957).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hosselet, C., and B. Erber: Le nucléole et les inclusions intranucléaires dans les neurones des ganglions rachidiens chez le singe poliomyélitique. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 118, 1387 (1935).Google Scholar
  76. Howe, H. A.: Epidemiology of poliomyelitis in the light of modern research. Amer. J. Med. 6, 537 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Howe, H. A. and D. Bodian: Portals of entry of poliomyelitis virus in the chimpanzee. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 43, 718 (1940).Google Scholar
  78. Howe, H. A. and D. Bodian: The effect of spinal transection on the spreas of poliomyelitis virus in the nervous system of the rhesus monkey. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 69, 86 (1941a).Google Scholar
  79. Howe, H. A. and D. Bodian: Poliomyelitis in the chimpanzee: a clinical-pathological study. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 69, 149 (1941b).Google Scholar
  80. Howe, H. A. and D. Bodian: Neuropathological evidence on the portal of entry problem in human poliomyelitis. Bull. Johns Hopk. Hosp. 69, 183 (1941c).Google Scholar
  81. Howe, H. A. and D. Bodian: Poliomyelitis in the cynomolgus monkey following oral inoculation. Amer. J. Hyg. 48, 99 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Howe, H. A. and I. M. Morgan: Subclinical poliomyelitis in the chimpanzee and its relation to alimentary infection. Amer. J. Hyg. 51, 85 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Howe, H. A. and R. S. Ecke: Experimental poliomyelitis without paralysis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 37, 125 (1937).Google Scholar
  84. Hudson, N. P., E. H. Lennette and F. B. Gordon: Factors of resistance in experimental poliomyelitis. J. Bact. 31, 32 (1936).Google Scholar
  85. Hurst, E. W.: The histology of experimental poliomyelitis. J. Path. Bact. 32, 457 (1929).Google Scholar
  86. Hurst, E. W.: A further contribution to the pathogenesis of experimental poliomyelitis. Inoculation into the sciatic nerve. J. Path. Bact. 33, 1133 (1930).Google Scholar
  87. Hurst, E. W.: The newer knowledge of virus diseases of the nervous system. A review and an interpretation. Brain 59, 1 (1936).Google Scholar
  88. Jones, J. H., C. Foster and W. Henle: A study of the influence of various dietary deficiencies on response of mice to the virus of poliomyelitis. Fed. Proc. 5, 234 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Junoeblut, C. W.: Unsolved problems in the pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. Proc. Third Int. Congr. Microbiol. 1940, p. 330.Google Scholar
  90. Junoeblut, C. W.: Monkey pathogenicity of various strains of murine poliomyelitis virus; experiments with Lansing, Mef and Yale-SK group. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 72, 532 (1949a).Google Scholar
  91. Junoeblut, C. W.: Monkey pathogenicity of various strains of murine poliomyelitis virus; experiments with Columbia SK-MM group. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 72, 534 (1949b).Google Scholar
  92. Junoeblut, C. W.: Columbia SK group of viruses. Doerr, R., and C. Hallauer: Handbuch der Virusforschung. Wien: Springer 1957.Google Scholar
  93. Junoeblut, C. W. and J. E. Edwards: Isolation of poliomyelitis virus from the heart in fatal cases. Amer. J. clin. Path. 21, 601 (1951).Google Scholar
  94. Junoeblut, C. W. and E. T. Engle: An investigation into the significance of hormonal factors in experimental poliomyelitis. J. exp. Med. 59, 43 (1934).Google Scholar
  95. Junoeblut, C. W. and M. Sanders: Transmission of murine strain of poliomyelitis virus to guinea pigs and rhesus monkeys. J. Amer. med. Ass. 116, 2136 (1941).Google Scholar
  96. Junoeblut, C. W. and W. J. Spring: Note on propagation of virus in experimental poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 27, 1076 (1930).Google Scholar
  97. Junoeblut, C. W. and M. A. Stevens: Attempts to isolate poliomyelitis virus from the paralyzed muscle of patients during the acute stage of the disease. Amer. J. clin. Path. 20, 701 (1950).Google Scholar
  98. Kalm, H.: Zur Topik des anatomischen Prozesses bei der Heine-Medinschen Krankheit. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 164, 93 (1950).Google Scholar
  99. Kalm, H.: Zur histologischen Diagnose Poliomyelitis im Tierexperiment. Arch. Virusforsch. 6, 183 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kersting, G., H. Lennartz and H. Pette: Zur Pathogenese der experimentellen Poliomyelitis. Mitteilung. Der Virusgehalt des Liquors. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 175, 72 (1956).Google Scholar
  101. Kessel, J. F., F. J. Moore, F. D. Stimpert and R. T. Fisx: Occurrence of poliomyelitis virus in autopsies, patients and contacts. J. exp. Med. 74, 601 (1941).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kling, C., C. Levaditi and P. Lepine: La pénétration du virus poliomyélitique à travers la muqueuse du tube digestif chez le singe et sa conservation dans l’eau. Bull. Acad. Méd. 102, 158 (1929).Google Scholar
  103. Koprowsxi, H.: Counterparts of human viral disease in animals. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 70, 369 (1958).Google Scholar
  104. G. A. Jervis and TR. W. Norton: Immune responses in human volunteers upon oral administration of a rodent-adapted strain of poliomyelitis virus. Amer. J. Hyg. 55, 108 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. G. A. Jervis and K. Pfeister: Adaptation of type I strain of poliomyelitis virus to mice and cotton rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 86, 238 (1954).Google Scholar
  106. T. W. Norton and W. Mcdermott: Isolation of poliomyelitis virus from human serum by direct inoculation into a laboratory mouse. Publ. Health Rep. 62, 1467 (1947).Google Scholar
  107. T. W. Norton, G. A. Jervis, TH. N. Nelson, D. L. Chadwick, D. J. Nelson and K. F. Meyer: Clinical investigations on attenuated strains of poliomyelitis virus. Use as a method of immunization of children with living virus. J. Amer. med. Ass. 160, 954 (1956).Google Scholar
  108. Krause, P., and E. Melnicke: Zur Aetiologie der akuten epidemischen Kinderlähmung. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 35, 1825 (1909)Google Scholar
  109. Krause, P., and E. Melnicke: Zur Aetiologie der akuten epidemischen Kinderlähmung. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 36, 647 (1910).Google Scholar
  110. Krech, U.: Intracerebral adaptation of the Leon strain of type 3 poliomyelitis virus. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 85, 344 (1954a).Google Scholar
  111. Krech, U.: Susceptibility of mice to infection with the Mahoney strain of type I poliomyelitis virus. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 86, 192 (1954b).Google Scholar
  112. Landsteiner, K., and C. Levaditi: La transmission de la paralysie infantile aux singes. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 67, 592 (1909).Google Scholar
  113. Landsteiner, K., C. Levaditi and V. Danulesco: Présence du virus de la poliomyélite dans l’amygdale des singes paralysés et son élimination par le mucus nasal. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 71, 558 (1911).Google Scholar
  114. Landsteiner, K., C. Levaditi and C. Pastia: Etude expérimentale de la poliomyélite aiguë (maladie de Heinemedin). Ann. Inst. Pasteur 25, 805 (1911a).Google Scholar
  115. Landsteiner, K., C. Levaditi and C. Pastia: Recherche du virus dans les organes d’un enfant atteint de poliomyélite aiguë. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 152, 1701 (1911b).Google Scholar
  116. Landsteiner, K., and E. Popper: Übertragung der Poliomyelitis acuta auf Affen. Z. Immun - Forsch. 2, 377 (1909).Google Scholar
  117. Landsteiner, K., and E. Prasek: Übertragung der Poliomyelitis acuta auf Affen. Z. Immun -Forsch. 4, 584 (1909).Google Scholar
  118. Leiner, C., and R. V. Wiesner: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über Poliomyelitis acuta anterior. Wien. klin Wschr. 22, 1698 (1909)Google Scholar
  119. Leiner, C., and R. V. Wiesner: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über Poliomyelitis acuta anterior. Wien. klin Wschr. 23, 91 (1910).Google Scholar
  120. Lennette, E. H., and N. P. Hudson: Relation of olfactory tracts to intravenous route of infection in experimental poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 32, 1444 (1935).Google Scholar
  121. Lepine, P.: Technique de l’isolement du virus poliomyélitique en milieu contaminé. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 131, 573 (1939).Google Scholar
  122. Lepine, P. and P. SÉDallian: Présence du virus poliomyélitique dans le contenu intestinal d’un enfant vivant en milieu familial infecté. Isolement du virus. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 208, 129 (1939).Google Scholar
  123. Levaditi, C.: Symbiose entre le virus de la poliomyélite et les cellules des ganglions spinaux l’état de vie prolongée in vitro. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 74, 1179 (1913).Google Scholar
  124. Levaditi, C. and P. Haber: Influence de certaines glandes endocrines sur la réceptivité de simiens à l’égard du virus poliomyélitique et sur leur immunité acquise. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 119, 16 (1935).Google Scholar
  125. Levaditi, C., C. Kling and P. Lepine: Nouvelles recherches expérimentales sur la transmission de la poliomyélite par la voie digestive. Action du chlore sur le virus poliomyélitique. Bull. Acad. Méd. 105, 190 (1931).Google Scholar
  126. Levaditi, C., C. Kling and K. Landsteiner: Etude expérimentale de la poliomyélite aiguë. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 68, 417 (1910).Google Scholar
  127. Levaditi, C., C. Kling and V. Stanesco: Lésion nerveuse et atrophie musculaire chez les singes atteints de paralysie infantile. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 68, 664 (1910).Google Scholar
  128. Levaditi, C., C. Kling and J. Vieuchange: Inoculabilité de certains virus neurotropes (herpès, poliomyélite) par la voie du conduit auditif externe. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 200, 1800 (1935).Google Scholar
  129. Levinson, S. O., A Milzer and P. Lewin: Effect of fatigue, chilling and mechanical trauma on resistance to experimental poliomyelitis. Amer. J. Hyg. 42, 204 (1945).Google Scholar
  130. Li, C. P., and K. Habel: Adaptation of Leon strain of type 3 poliomyelitis virus to mice. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 78, 233 (1951).Google Scholar
  131. Li, C. P., and M. Schaeffer: Adaptation of type 1 poliomyelitis virus to mice. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 82, 477 (1953a).Google Scholar
  132. Li, C. P., and M. Schaeffer: Further modification of the mouse-adapted type Iii poliomyelitis virus. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 83, 706 (1953b).Google Scholar
  133. Li, C. P., and M. Schaeffer: Isolation of a non-neurotropic variant of type 1 poliomyelitis virus. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 87, 148 (1954).Google Scholar
  134. Li, C. P., M. Schaeffer and D. B. Nelson: Multiplication of poliomyelitis virus in monkey tissues grafted onto chorioallantois of chick embryo. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 87, 153 (1954).Google Scholar
  135. Lichstein, H. C., H. A. Waisman, C. A. Elvehjem and P. F. Clark: Influence of pantothenic acid deficiency on resistance of mice to experimental poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 56, 3 (1944).Google Scholar
  136. Lillie, R. D., and CH. Armstrong: The pathology of poliomyelitis experimentally induced in the eastern cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus hispidus. Publ. Health Rep. 55, 115 (1940a).Google Scholar
  137. Lillie, R. D., and CH. Armstrong: Cerebrospinal pathology of experimental poliomyelitis in the eastern cotton rat,. Sigmodon hispidus hispidus, and in the white mouse, Mus musculus. Publ. Health Rep. 55, 718 (1940).Google Scholar
  138. Long, P. H., P. K. Olitsky and C. P. Rhoads: Survival and multiplication of the virus of poliomyelitis in vitro. J. exp. Med. 52, 361 (1930).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Love, R., and M. Roca-Garcia: Pathogenesis of poliomyelitis in the chick embryo. A.M.A. Arch. Path. 63, 55 (1957).Google Scholar
  140. Magnus, H. V., and J. L. Melnick: Tonsillectomy in experimental poliomyelitis. Amer. J. Hyg. 48, 113 (1948).Google Scholar
  141. Martin, L. A.: Sur les techniques d’isolement et d’entretien sur lapin des virus poliomyélitiques. Résultats enregistrés. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 84, 481 (1953).Google Scholar
  142. Melnick, J. L.: Poliomyelitis virus in the blood stream in the experimental disease. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 58, 14 (1945).Google Scholar
  143. Melnick, J. L.: Recovery of poliomyelitis virus from stools of experimentally infected monkeys and chimpanzees. Fed. Proc. 5, 250 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Melnick, J. L., and D. M. Horstmann: Active immunity to poliomyelitis in chimpanzees following subclinical infection. J. exp. Med. 85, 287 (1947).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Melnick, J. L., and H. V. Magnus: Comparative susceptibility of cynomolgus and other monkey species to poliomyelitis virus by the intracerebral and oral routes. Amer. J. Hyg. 48, 107 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Melnick, J. L. and R. Ward: Adaptation of poliomyelitis strains to rodents with a word on nomenclature. Fed. Proc. 7, 308 (1948).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Milzer, A., M. A. Weiss and K. Vanderboom: Effect of pertussis, diphtheria toxoid and Salmonella immunization on experimental poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 77, 485 (1951).Google Scholar
  148. Mollaret, P.: Le démembrement de la poliomyélite. Paris: Masson & Cie. 1950.Google Scholar
  149. Mollaret, P., and B. Erber: Le liquide céphalorachidien lombaire et sousoccipital dans la poliomyélite expérimentale du singe. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 117, 1098 (1934).Google Scholar
  150. Moyer, A. W., C. Accorti and H. R. Cox: Poliomyelitis. I. Propagation of the Meff strain of poliomyelitis virus in the suckling-hamster. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 81, 513 (1952).Google Scholar
  151. Nungester, W. J.: Results of inoculations of poliomyelitis virus in mice. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 30, 1128 (1933).Google Scholar
  152. Pette, H.: Die akut entzündlichen Erkrankungen des Nervensystems. Leipzig: Georg Thieme 1942.Google Scholar
  153. Pette, H.: Die Pathogenese der Poliomyelitis. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 78, 1129 (1953).Google Scholar
  154. Pette, H., H. Demme and S. Kornyey: Studien über experimentelle Poliomyelitis. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 128, 125 (1932).Google Scholar
  155. Plotz, H., R. Reagan and H.L. Hamilton: Transmission of murine strain of poliomyelitis virus to the Syrian hamster. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 51, 124 (1942).Google Scholar
  156. Rasmussen jr., A. F., H. A. Waisman, C. A. Elveiijem and P. F. Clark: Influence of the level of thiamine intake on the susceptibility of mice to poliomyelitis virus. J. infect. Dis. 74, 41 (1944).Google Scholar
  157. Robertson, E. G.: An examination of the olfactory bulbs in fatal cases of poliomyelitis during the Victorian epidemic of 1937–1938. Med. J. Aust. 1, 156 (1940).Google Scholar
  158. Roca-Garcia, M., A. W. Moyer and H. R. Cox: Poliomyelitis. II. Propagation of Mefi strain of poliomyelitis virus in developing chick embryo by yolk sac inoculation. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 81, 519 (1952).Google Scholar
  159. Rosenbaum, H. E., and C. G. Hartford: Effect of fatigue on susceptibility of mice to poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 83, 678 (1953).Google Scholar
  160. Rudder, B. DE, and G. A. Petersen: Steigert körperliche Anstrengung die Disposition zur epidemischen Kinderlähme ? Klin Wschr. 17, 699 (1938).Google Scholar
  161. Sabin, A. B.: Experimental poliomyelitis by the tonsillopharyngeal route. J. Amer. med. Ass. 111, 605 (1938).Google Scholar
  162. Sabin, A. B.: The olfactory bulb in human poliomyelitis. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 60, 1313 (1940).Google Scholar
  163. Sabin, A. B.: Etiology of poliomyelitis. J. Amer. med. Ass. 117, 267 (1941).Google Scholar
  164. Sabin, A. B.: Studies on the natural history of poliomyelitis. J. Mt Sinai Hosp. 11, 185 (1944).Google Scholar
  165. Sabin, A. B.: Problems in the natural history of poliomyelitis. Ann intern. Med. 30, 40 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Sabin, A. B.: Paralytic consequences of poliomyelitis infection in different parts of the world and in different population groups. Amer. J. publ. Hlth 41, 1215 (1951).Google Scholar
  167. Sabin, A. B.: Behavior of chimpanzee-avirulent poliomyelitis viruses in experimentally infected human volunteers. Amer. J. med. Sei. 230, 1 (1955).Google Scholar
  168. Sabin, A. B.: Present status of attenuated live-virus poliomyelitis vaccine. J. Amer. med. Ass. 162, 1589 (1956a).Google Scholar
  169. Sabin, A. B.: Pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. Reappraisal in the light of new data. Science 123, 1151 (1956b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. W. A. Hennessen and J. Winsser: Studies on variants of poliomyelitis virus. I. Experimental segregation and properties of avirulent variants of three immunologic types. J. exp. Med. 99, 551 (1954).Google Scholar
  171. W. A. Hennessen and P. K. Olitsky,Cultivation of poliomyelitis virus in vitro in human embryonic nervous tissue. Proc. Soc. expo, Biol. (N. Y.) 34, 357 (1936a).Google Scholar
  172. Sabin, A. B., and P. K. Olitsky: Influence of pathway of infection on pathology of olfactory bulbs in experimental poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 35, 300 (1936b).Google Scholar
  173. Sabin, A. B., and P. K. Olitsky: The olfactory bulbs in experimental poliomyelitis. J. Amer. med. Ass. 108, 21 (1937).Google Scholar
  174. Sabin, A. B., and P. K. Olitsky: Fate of nasally instilled poliomyelitis virus in normal and convalescent monkeys with special reference to the problem of host to host transmission. J. exp. Med. 68, 39 (1938).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Sabin, A. B., P. K. Olitsky and R. Ward: The natural history of human poliomyelitis. J. exp. Med. 73, 771 (1941).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Sabin, A. B., P. K. Olitsky and R. Ward: Behavior of poliomyelitis virus in cynomolgus monkeys infected by the oral route. J. Bact. 43, 86 (1942a).Google Scholar
  177. Sabin, A. B., P. K. Olitsky and R. Ward: Natural history of experimental poliomyelitis; studies on centrifugal spread and elimination of virus in intrasciatically inoculated rhesus monkeys. J. exp. Med. 75, 107 (1942b).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Sabin, A. B., P. K. Olitsky and R. Ward: Insects and epidemiology of poliomyelitis. Science 95, 169 (1942c).Google Scholar
  179. Schlesinger, R. W., I. M. Morgan and P. K. Olitsky: Transmission to rodents of Lansing type poliomyelitis virus originating in the Middle East. Science 98, 452 (1943).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Selzer, G., M. Sacks and M. van den Ende: Adaptation and multiplication rate of the Mef, strain of poliomyelitis virus in newborn mice. S. Afr. med. J. 26, 201 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Shwartzman, G.: Enhancing effect of cortisone upon poliomyelitis infection (strain Mefi) in hamsters and mice. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 75, 835 (1950).Google Scholar
  182. Shwartzman, G., and A. Fisher: Alteration of experimental poliomyelitis infection in the Syrian hamster with the aid of cortisone. J. exp. Med. 95, 347 (1952).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Somerville, R. G., I. C. Monro and C. C. Cuthbert: Poliovirus type 1 isolated from a budgerigar. Lancet 1958, No 7019, 512.Google Scholar
  184. Stanley, N. F., D. C. Dorman and J. Ponsford: Infection of mice with type I and Iii poliomyelitis virus following intracerebral inoculation. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 85, 454 (1954).Google Scholar
  185. Steigman, A. J.: Poliomyelitic properties of certain non-polio viruses: Enteroviruses and Heine-Medin disease. J. Mt Sinai Hosp. 25, 391 (1958).Google Scholar
  186. Steigman, A. J., and U. P. Kokko: Recovery of type 1 (Brunhilde) poliomyelitis virus from mouse brain and spinal cord. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 81, 261 (1952).Google Scholar
  187. Swan, C.: The anatomical distribution and character of the lesions of poliomyelitis, with special reference to the type of cell affected, and to the portal of entry of the virus. Aust. J. exp. Biol. med. Sci. 17, 345 (1939).Google Scholar
  188. Theiler, M: Spontaneous encephalomyelitis of mice, a new virus disease. J. exp. Med. 65, 705 (1937).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Toomey, J. A.: Spread of poliomyelitis virus along nerve fibers of the sympathetic system. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 31, 502 (1934a).Google Scholar
  190. Toomey, J. A.: Note on spread of poliomyelitis virus in monkeys. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 31, 702 (1934b).Google Scholar
  191. Toomey, J. A.: Poliomyelitis. Jb. Kinderheilk. 143, 353 (1934c).Google Scholar
  192. Toomey, J. A.: Experimental production of bulbar poliomyelitis. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 32, 628 (1935).Google Scholar
  193. Toomey, J. A., W. O. Frohring and W. S. Tabacs: Vitamin Bi deficient animals and poliomyelitis. Yale J. Biol. Med. 16, 477 (1944).Google Scholar
  194. Toomey, J. A., W. O. Frohring and C. E. Krill: Tonsillectomy and poliomyelitis. Ohio St. med. J. 38, 653 (1942).Google Scholar
  195. Toomey, J. A., W. O. Frohring and K. R. Phelps: Inoculation of mice with poliomyelitis virus. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 33, 625 (1936).Google Scholar
  196. Toomey, J. A., W. O. Frohring and W. S. Takacs: Spread of poliomyelitis virus along axons of peripheral nerves. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 63, 467 (1942).Google Scholar
  197. Trask, J. D., and J. R. Paul: Experimental poliomyelitis induced by intracutaneous inoculation. J. Bact. 31, 527 (1936).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Trask, J. D., and J. R. Paul: Experimental poliomyelitis in Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus (Green African monkey) by oral and other routes. J. exp. Med. 73, 453 (1941).PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Trask, J. D., A. J. Vignec and J. R. Paul: Poliomyelitis virus in human stools. J. Amer. med. Ass. 111, 6 (1938).Google Scholar
  200. Uflacker, H.: Zur Frage der Myokarditis bei Poliomyelitis. Arch. Kinderheilk. 149, 144 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Verlinde, J. D.: Over myelitis bij het varken en de hond. Vergelijking van het histopathologische beeld met poliomyelitis van de mens. T. Diergeneesk. 75, 49 (1950).Google Scholar
  202. Verlinde, J. D.: A comparative study on muscular involvement in experimental poliomyelitis induced by various strains of virus, and the effect of hyaluronidase on the intramuscular inoculation. Arch. Virusforsch. 4, 546 (1952a).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Verlinde, J. D.: An experimental study on the effect of immunization with T.A.B. and pertussis vaccine and alum-precipitated diphtheria toxoid on the centripetal and centrifugal neural spread of poliomyelitis virus. Arch. Virusforsch. 4, 561 (1952b).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Verlinde, J. D.: Le tropisme musculaire des virus poliomyélitiques. Sem. Hôp. Paris 29, 41 (1953).Google Scholar
  205. Verlinde, J. D.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Pathogenese der paralytischen Poliomyelitis, insbesondere nach Tonsillektomie und intramuskulärer Injektion. Bull. schweiz. Akad. med. Wiss. 11, 177 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Verlinde, J. D., P. de Baan and J. A. Vercruysse: The monkey-pathogenicity of the Columbia SK virus and the mouse-adapted Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus, and the influence of monkey passage on the characteristics of the virus. Antonie v. Leeuwenhoek 16, 9 (1950).Google Scholar
  207. Verlinde, J. D., P. de Baan and B. Seem: Haematogenous spread of poliomyelitis virus. Antonie v. Leeuwenhoek 18, 109 (1952).Google Scholar
  208. Verlinde, J. D., P. de Baan and B. Hofman: Pathogenic and immunologic properties of two new members of the Columbia SK group of viruses. Arch. Virusforsch. 5, 14 (1952).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Verlinde, J. D., P. de Baan and B. Hofman: Experimentele actieve immunisatie met levend avirulent poliomyelitisvirus. Ned. T. Geneesk. 100, 2179 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Verlinde, J. D., P. de Baan and J. B. Wilterdink: A naturally occurring highly attenuated strain of type 1 poliomyelitis virus. Antonie v. Leeuwenhoek 23, 364 (1957).Google Scholar
  211. Verlinde, J. D., A. Kret and R. Wyler: The distribution of poliomyelitis virus in cynomolgus monkeys following oral administration, tonsillectomy and intramuscular injection of diphtheria toxoid. Arch. Virusforsch. 6, 175 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Verlinde, J. D., and J. H. Molron: Mixed infection with type 2 poliomyelitis virus and Columbia SK group virus in man. An attempt to explain any relation of viruses of the Columbia SK group to human poliomyelitis. Antonie v. Leeuwenhoek 20, 129 (1954).Google Scholar
  213. Verlinde, J. D., and H. A. E. Van Tongeren: Human infection with viruses of the Columbia SK group. Arch. Virusforsch. 5, 217 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Verlinde, J. D., S. R. Pattyn and A. Rosenzweig: Virus meningo-encephalitis in Austria. Pathogenic and immunologic properties of the virus. Bull. Wld 111th Org. 12, 565 (1955).Google Scholar
  215. Verlinde, J. D., and J. B. Wilterdink: Neuropathogenicity of non-polio enteroviruses with special reference to Echo, virus. Folia psychiat. neerl. 61 /5, 146 (1958).Google Scholar
  216. Verlinde, J. D., B. Hofman and A. Kret: Actieve immunisatie tegen poliomyelitis met een vaccin van verzwakt virus. II. Eerste mededeling over de toepassing van het Sabin-vaccin in Nederland. Ned. T. Geneesk. 102, 1144 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Waaler, P.: The pathogenesis of acute poliomyelitis. Histologic examination of the peripheral nervous system and the olfactory bulbus. Acta path. microbiol. stand. 21, 846 (1944).Google Scholar
  218. Warburg, B.: Experimental poliomyelitis. Histology of the persistent lesions of the central nervous system. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. (Chicago) 25, 1191 (1931).Google Scholar
  219. Ward, R.: Viruses of poliomyelitis. Amer. J. Med. 6, 551 (1949).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Ward, R., D. M. Horstmann and J. L. Melnick: The isolation of poliomyelitis virus from human extraneural sources. Search for virus in the blood of patients. J. clin. Invest. 25, 284 (1946).PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  221. Weaver, H. M.: The effect of rachitogenic diets, partial inanition, and sex on the resistance of cotton rats to the virus of poliomyelitis. J. Pediat. 24, 88 (1944).Google Scholar
  222. Weaver, H. M.: Resistance of cotton rats to the virus of poliomyelitis as affected by intake of vitamin A, partial inanition and sex. J. Pediat. 28, 14 (1946).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Wenner, H., and T. Y. D. Chin: Discussion on „Echo viruses“ by J. L. Melnick. Cellular biology, nucleic acids and viruses. Spec. Publ. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 5, 384 (1957).Google Scholar
  224. Wenner, H., and P. Kamitsuka: Further observations on the widespread distribution of poliomyelitis virus in body tissues following intramuscular inoculation of cynomolgus monkeys. Virology 2, 83 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Wenner, H., and P. Kamitsuka: Primary sites of virus multiplication following intramuscular inoculation of poliomyelitis virus in cynomolgus monkeys. Virology 3, 429 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1960

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Verlinde
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung für Medizinische MikrobiologieNiederländisches Institut für Präventive Medizin und Reichs-UniversitätLeidenThe Niederlande

Personalised recommendations