East — West III — Withering Away of Formal Ownership

  • G. Adler-Karlsson
Part of the Studien über Wirtschafts- und Systemvergleiche book series (STUDIEN)


Just as the state might wither away, so may ownership. Formal ownership of the means of production is no guarantee of successful economic performance; nor is formal ownership a sufficient basis for economic independence. Eastern Europe has experienced the truth of the first statement; they are now taking the risk that even the second statement may prove true.


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  1. 1).
    Economic Commission for Europe, Analytical report on industrial co-operation among ECE countries. United Nations, Geneve 1973, p. 2.Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    J. Ramsey, “In East-West Trade ‘Co-operation’ Is In”, Fortune, November 1973, p. 178. During the latest years the commercial interests have stimulated a number of studies on East-West co-operation in several nations. Qualitatively some of the best ones come from the Institute for Soviet and East European Studies at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada, under the leadership of Carl H. McMillan. Among various publications the following will give many details about co-operation that is only touched upon in this chapter: C. H. McMillan, editor, Changing Perspectives in East — West Commerce. Lexington Books, Lexington, Mass., 1974.Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    Ibid, p. 2Google Scholar
  4. 4).
    J. Ramsey, “In East-West Trade, ‘Co-operation’ Is In.”, Fortune, November 1973, p. 178.Google Scholar
  5. 5).
    ECE SC.Techn. 1971/3/Add. 3.Google Scholar
  6. 6).
    Instant Research on Peace and Violence, No. 3, 1972, p. 151.Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    ECE, Analytical Report..., op. cit., p. 3.Google Scholar
  8. 8).
    ECE/GEN/N/96-ECE/TT/23, 10 November 1975, p. 3.Google Scholar
  9. 9).
    On the extreme difficulties of estimating the Soviet military R & D level, and the U.S. attempts to exaggerate this level, see: SIPRI, Resources Devoted to Military Research and Development. An international Comparison. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm 1972, p. 53 and Appendix C.Google Scholar
  10. 10).
    G. Adler-Karlsson, Carrying and Harrying Capacity, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Stockholm 1974. Harvard University Program on Technology and Society 1964-1972. A Final Review. Cambridge, Mass., 1972.Google Scholar
  11. 11).
    For three surveys of Eastern indebtedness, see M. Kaser in International Currency Review, July-August 1973; Lawrence J. Brainard, “Criteria for financing East — West Trade.” in J. P. Hardt, editor, Tariff, Legal and Credit Constraints on East — West Commercial Relations. Carleton University, Ottawa, 1975, pp. 4–26; and Radio Free Europe Research, Background Report/146 (Poland), 2 October 1975; According to a CIA report, mentioned in International Herald Tribune, April 9, 1975, the Soviet balance of payment situation for the next five years should even be very satisfactory. According to U.S. News and World Report, July 19, 1976, p. 42 the total Soviet and East European debt to the West now amounts to 32 billion dollars.Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    M. Radetzki, Aid and Development. Praeger Publishers, New York 1973, p. 16.Google Scholar
  13. 13).
    See International Herald Tribune, August 24, 1973.Google Scholar
  14. 14).
    Overseas Private Investment Corporation, Investing in Yugoslavia with OPIC Assistance, Washington 1973, lists 76 joint venture contracts involving 125 million dollars in foreign and 544 million dollars in Yugoslav capital.Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Wien 1976

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  • G. Adler-Karlsson

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