Trade, Growth, Democracy, and the Three E’s

  • G. Adler-Karlsson
Part of the Studien über Wirtschafts- und Systemvergleiche book series (STUDIEN)


Which are the links — if any — between foreign economic relations, economic growth and development, and political and economic democracy? This is the difficult question that will be discussed in the second part of the book.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1).
    G. AdIer-Karlsson, “The Semi-Developed Soviet Economy — a Foreign Trade Illustration.” Economics of Planning, No. 1, 1966.Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    Role of Giant Corporations. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Monopoly of the Select Committee on Small Business. United States Senate. Part 2. Corporate Secrecy. November 9 and 12, 1971, Washington 1972.Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    “Claire Sterling from Rome”. International Herald Tribune, February 20, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. 4).
    D. P. Calleo and B. M. Rowland, America and the World Political Economy. Indiana University Press, 1973. p. 191.Google Scholar
  5. 5).
    W. Nordhaus and J. Tobin, “Is Growth Obsolete?” from Economic Growth, Fiftieth Anni versary Colloquium V, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York 1972.Google Scholar
  6. 6).
    For a good list of Western contributions, see: A. Bergson, “Comparative Productivity and Efficiency in the Soviet Union and the United States.” In A. Eckstein, editor, Compari sons of Economic Systems. Theoretical and Methodological Approaches. University of California Press, 1971, pp. 214 ff.Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    How these media can function has been described in H. I. Schiller, The Mind Managers, Beacon Press, Boston 1973.Google Scholar
  8. 8).
    P. G. Peterson, U.S. — Commercial Relationships in a New Era. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington DC, August 1972.Google Scholar
  9. 9).
    U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, World Military Expenditures 1971, Washington D.C., 1972, p. 51.Google Scholar
  10. 10).
    P. G. Peterson, op. cit. pp. 28, 30, and 50.Google Scholar
  11. 11).
    M. Simai, “Economic Growth and the Development Level”, Trends in World Economy, No. 7, 1972, p. 16. The Hungarian Scientific Council for World Economy. Budapest.Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    W. Malenbaum, “India and China: Contrasts in Development Performance”. American Economic Review, vol. 49, no. 3, June 1959, pp. 284/309.Google Scholar
  13. 13).
    S. Swamy, “Economic Growth in China and India, 1952-1970. A Comparative Appraisal.” Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol. 21, no. 4, part 11, July 1973. passim.Google Scholar
  14. 14).
    D. T. Healey, “Chinese Real Output 1950-1970”, Bulletin, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, no. 2/3, 1972, pp. 49/59.Google Scholar
  15. 15).
    The fact that economic warfare may have been more serious for the socialist nations is not taken into account here, but may have played a marginal role in the relative performance. C/f G. Adler-Karlsson, Western Economic Warfare 1945-1967. Uppsala 1968, chapter 15. The socialist nations can, with strong justification, claim that they have grown not only without Western assistance but even in spite of serious attempts at economic warfare from the Western outside.Google Scholar
  16. 16).
    Irma Adelman & Cynthia Taft Morris, Economic Growth and Social Equity in Developing Countries. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California 1973.Google Scholar
  17. H. Chenery et. al., Redistribution with Growth. Oxford University Press, London 1974. (See also review by A.M., “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” in Economic and Political Weekly, Bombay, India, May 3, 1975, for a view from a poor nation about the “new” Western insights).Google Scholar
  18. 17).
    We are here primarily concerned with the extremes of the income and wealth pyramids, those that evoke the strong feelings of justice or inequality. For figures, see e. g. W. S. Comanor and R. H. Smiley, “Monopoly and the distribution of wealth.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 89, No. 2, 1975, pp. 177–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. J. Tinbergen, Income Differences. Recent research. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam 1975. (Tinbergen op. cit. p. 7.) P. Wiles has made an attempt to estimate the ratio of income after tax for the upper and lower five per cent of the income ladder in recent years. Among his results the following can be mentioned: Sweden 3, Bulgaria 3.8, Hungary 4, CSSR 4.3, UK 5, USSR 5.5, Italy 11.2, and the U.S.A. 12.7. Such figures can, however, always be questioned. The dean of Soviet studies in the West, A. Bergson, in 1974 came to the following judgement: “If equity is taken to turn essentially on equality, very possibly the USSR does score here; and perhaps growth has been adversely affected. Chiefly because of Soviet secrecy regarding income differentials, however, these matters are very difficult to judge.” A. Bergson, Soviet Post-War Economic Development. The Wicksell Lectures 1974, Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm, 1974, p. 48.Google Scholar
  20. 18).
    The figures in this section are taken from: D. Lane, The End of Inequality? Stratification under State Socialism. Penguin Books, 1971, pp. 73ff.Google Scholar
  21. 19).
    Ibid. p. 74.Google Scholar
  22. 20).
    H. P. Miller and R. Herriot, “The Taxes we Pay”. The Conference Board Record, May 1971. J.A. Pechman and B.A. Okner, Who bears the tax burden? The Brookings Institution. Washington D.C. 1974.Google Scholar
  23. 21).
    Commission of the EC, “Das gegenwärtige in den Ländern der Gemeinschaft auf dem Gebiet der Einkommen und Vermögen vorliegende Material”. Studien, Sozialpolitik-1972-22, Brüssel 1972.Google Scholar
  24. 22).
    H.F. Lydall and D.G. Tipping, “The Distribution of Personal Wealth in Britain”, in A.B. Atkinson, editor, Wealth, Income and Inequality. Penguin Education, 1973, p. 243.Google Scholar
  25. 23).
    A.B. Atkinson, Unequal Shares. Wealth in Britain. Allen Lane 1973.Google Scholar
  26. 24).
    A.M. Louis, “The New Rich of the Seventies”. Fortune, September 1973.Google Scholar
  27. 25).
    A. Nove, “Is There a Ruling Class in the USSR?”, Soviet Studies, vol. 27, No. 4, 1975, p. 615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 26).
    L. G. Reynolds, “China’s Economy: A View from the Grass Roots”. Challenge, vol. 17, No. 1, March/April 1974, p. 17.Google Scholar
  29. 27).
    K. Marx. Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Oekonomie. Erster Band. O. Meissners Verlag, Hamburg 1914, p.596f.Google Scholar
  30. 28).
    ECE, Economic Survey of Europe in 1973. Geneve 1974, ch. 2Google Scholar
  31. 29).
    Washington Post, May 7, 1974, p. 12.Google Scholar
  32. 30).
    R. Jolly et. al., editors. Third World Employment. Problems and Strategy. Penguin Education 1973, p. 79Google Scholar
  33. 31).
    R. S. McNamara, One Hundred Countries, Two Billion People. Praeger, New York 1973, p. 61Google Scholar
  34. 32).
    Jolly, op. cit., p. 81Google Scholar
  35. 33).
    G. Watson, “Were the Intellectuals Duped?” Encounter, December 1973, p. 20Google Scholar
  36. 34).
    G. Adler-Karlsson, Kuba Report. Sieg oder Niederlage?, Europa Verlag, Wien 1973, p. 56.Google Scholar
  37. 35).
    W. Leontief, “The Trouble with Cuban Socialism”, The New York Review of Books, January 7, 1970; for a similar view of Cuba, see: N. Amara and C. Mesa-Lago, “Inequality and Classes” in C. Mesa-Lago, editor, Revolutionary Change in Cuba. University of Pittsburgh Press 1971, p. 353Google Scholar
  38. 36).
    L.G. Reynolds, “China’s Economy: A View from the Grass Roots”, Challenge, Vol. 17, No. 1, March/April 1974, p. 14.Google Scholar
  39. 37).
    For an East-West comparison of consumption levels, see A. Bergson, Soviet Post-War Eco nomic Development. Wicksell Lectures 1974. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm 1974, chap ter IIGoogle Scholar
  40. 38).
    G. Hodgson, “The Politics of American Health Care.” The Atlantic Monthly, October 1973, p. 56.Google Scholar
  41. 39).
    G. Adler-Karlsson, op. cit., p. 136Google Scholar
  42. 40).
    R. TerrilI: 800,000,000 The Real China, Heineman, London 1972Google Scholar
  43. 41).
    A. JacovieIlo: “Un saissant contrast avec la société chinoise”, Le Monde Diplomatique, August 1973, p. 20Google Scholar
  44. 42).
    P. Mendes-France: Dialogues avec lAsie daujourdhui, Gallimard, Paris 1972Google Scholar
  45. 43).
    W. Leontief: “Socialism in China”, The Atlantic Monthly, March 1973, pp. 73/81Google Scholar
  46. 44).
    L. Reynolds, op. cit., p. 18Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Adler-Karlsson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations