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Vergleichende Betrachtung des pflanzlichen Stoffwechsels

  • K. Mothes
  • H. Reinbothe
  • E. Ohmann
  • H. R. Schütte
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Part of the Physiologische Chemie book series (382, volume 2, 2, d/¿)

Zusammenfassung

Die den Stoffwechsel bedingende molekulare Struktur und Mikro-Architektur der Zelle zeigt in den höheren Tieren und Pflanzen wie auch in den Mikroorganismen eine große Einheitlichkeit. Bei aller Verschiedenheit der Gestalt ist diese grundlegende Übereinstimmung einer der stärksten Beweise für die Einheit des Lebendigen, so wie wir es von unserer Erde her kennen. Zu erörtern, ob es eine andere Art von chemischer Organisation des Lebens gibt, liegt zur Zeit völlig im Bereich der Spekulation. Die Frage, warum sich der aller Gestaltung zugrunde liegende Stoffwechsel so einheitlich ausgebildet hat, kann zur Zeit wissenschaftlich nicht beantwortet werden. Sind solche universal verwendeten Erfindungen wie die des Porphyrinsystems wegen eines einzigartigen Nutzeffektes selektiv immer wieder zur Herrschaft in verschiedensten Stoffwechselbereichen gekommen, oder ist eine solche Erfindung nur einmal im Zuge des Lebens durch einen Zufall gemacht worden, oder entspricht ihr Dasein einer Notwendigkeit, die in den thermodynamischen Vorteilen solcher Moleküle begründet liegt, so daß Leben, so oft es auch entstehen mag, immer in der gleichen Weise zu solchen optimalen Organisationsformen gelangen müßte? Diese Fragen vermögen wir heute noch nicht zu entscheiden. Aber Einheitlichkeit des Grundstoffwechsels und die erstaunliche Ähnlichkeit der Feinstrukturen aller Zellen machen heute eine allgemeine Biologie zu einer Wirklichkeit und nicht nur zu einem Wunschbild. Deshalb ist es auch möglich, Reaktionen des Grundstoffwechsels und allgemeine Prinzipien der Physiologie an den verschiedensten Organismen zu studieren. Das in dem einen Bereich des Lebendigen Erkannte kann auch in anderen Bereichen angewandt werden. Der Biochemiker sucht sich von Fall zu Fall Objekte aus ganz verschiedenen Bezirken des Lebendigen. Biochemie und Genetik geben die Mittel in die Hand, die alle Wissenschaft gefährdende Sammlung von Vielfalt durch übergeordnete Gesichtspunkte zu überwinden. Dadurch wird der Mannigfaltigkeit erst der richtige Rang eingeräumt als Ausdruck der Variabilität durchgehender Gesetzmäßigkeiten.

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