Malaria Models in Simian Hosts

  • R. N. Rossan
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 68)

Abstract

Recognition by Moore and Lanier (1961) and Young and Moore (1961) of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine, coupled with the disease among United States service personnel caused by such resistant strains, required the finding of a small, readily obtainable animal susceptible to human plasmodia for the evaluation of candidate antimalarial drugs. At Gorgas Memorial Laboratory Young et al. (1966) demonstrated that the Panamanian Aotus trivirgatus (owl monkey) would support development of Plasmodium vivax obtained from a human patient. A year later, Geiman and Meagher (1967) reported the successful adaptation of an East African strain of P. falciparum in A. trivirgatus of Colombian origin. The Colombian A. trivirgatus model, infected with strains of P. falciparum of diverse susceptibilities and/or resistance to chloroquine, pyrimethamine, and quinine, afforded the basis for intensive investigations. Schmidt (1969) recognised the value of the owl monkey model for evaluating new antimalarials.

Keywords

Quinoline Phenanthrene Trop Clindamycin Trimethoprim 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baerg DC, Porter JA Jr, Young MD (1969) Sporozoite transmission of Plasmodium vivax to Panamanian primates. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18:346–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Collins WE, Contacos PG (1971) Observations on the relapse activity of Plasmodium fieldi in the rhesus monkey. J Parasitol 57:29–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Collins WE, Contacos PG (1972) Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum from monkey to monkey by the bite of infected Anopheles freeborni mosquitoes. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 66:371–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Collins WE, Contacos PG, Stanfill PS, Richardson BB (1973 a) Studies on human malaria in Aotus monkeys. I. Sporozoite transmission of Plasmodium vivax from El Salvador. J Parasitol 59:606–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Collins WE, Neva FA, Chaves-Carballo E, Stanfill PS, Richardson BB (1973 b) Studies on human malaria in Aotus monkeys. II. Establishment of a strain of Plasmodium falciparum from Panama. J Parasitol 59:609–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Collins WE, Warren McW, Skinner JC, Chin W, Richardson BB (1977) Studies on the Santa Lucia (El Salvador) strain of Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus trivirgatus monkeys. J Parasitol 63:52–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Collins WE, Warren McW, Skinner JC, Richardson BB, Chin W (1979) Studies on the West African I strain of Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus trivirgatus monkeys. J Parasitol 65:763–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Collins WE, Warren McW, Contacos PG, Skinner JC, Richardson BB, Kearse TS (1980) The Chesson strain of Plasmodium vivax in Aotus monkeys and anopheline mosquitoes. J Parasitol 66:488–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davidson DE Jr, Johnsen DO, Tanticharoenyos P, Hickman RL, Kinnamon KE (1976) Evaluating new antimalarial drugs against trophozoite induced Plasmodium cynomolgi malaria in rhesus monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25:26–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Deane LM, Ferreira Neto J, Silveira IPS (1966) Experimental infection of a splenectomized squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, with Plasmodium vivax. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 60:811–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Garnham PCC, Warren McW, Killick-Kendrick R (1971) The action of “Terramycin” on the primary exoerythrocytic development of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium cynomolgi ceylonensis. J Trop Med Hyg 74:32–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Geiman QM, Meagher MJ (1967) Susceptibility of a New World monkey to Plasmodium falciparum from man. Nature 215:437–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glew RH, Collins WE, Miller LH (1978) Selection of increased quinine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27:9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hayes DE, Ward RA (1977) Sporozoite transmission of falciparum malaria (Burma-Thau strain) from man to Aotus monkey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26:184–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Moore DV, Lanier JE (1961) Observations on two Plasmodium falciparum infections with abnormal response to chloroquine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 10:5–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Omar MS, Collins WE (1974) Studies on the antimalarial effects of RC-12 and WR 14997 on the development of Plasmodium cynomolgi in mosquitoes and rhesus monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 23:339–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Peters W (1970) Chemotherapy and drug resistance in malaria. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Peters W (1980) Chemotherapy of malaria. In: Kreier JP (ed) Malaria, vol I. Academic, New York, pp 145–283Google Scholar
  19. Powers KG (1969) Activity of chlorinated lincomycin analogues against Plasmodium cynomolgi in rhesus monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18:485–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Powers KG, Jacobs RL (1972) Activity of two chlorinated lincomycin analogues against chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in owl monkeys. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1:49–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Powers KG, Aikawa M, Nugent KM (1976) Plasmodium knowlesi: Morphology and course of infection in rhesus monkeys treated with Clindamycin and its N-demethyl-4-pentyl analog. Exp Parasitol 40:13–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Raether W, Fink E (1979) Antimalarial activity of Floxacrine (HOE 991). I. Studies on blood schizontocidal action of Floxacrine against Plasmodium berghei, P. vinckei, and P. cynomolgi. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 73:505–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Rossan RN, Baerg DC, Young MD (1972) Characterization of Plasmodium vivax infections in Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkeys). Proc Helminth Soc Wash 39:24–28Google Scholar
  24. Rossan RN, Young MD, Baerg DC (1975) Chemotherapy of Plasmodium vivax in Saimiri and Aotus models. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24:168–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Rothe WE, Jacobus DP, Walter WG (1969) Treatment of trophozoite-induced Plasmodium knowlesi infection in the rhesus monkey with trimethoprim and sulfalene. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18:491–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ryley JF, Peters W (1970) The antimalarial activity of some quinoline esters. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 64:209–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Schmidt LH (1969) Chemotherapy of the drug-resistant malarias. Annu Rev Microbiol 23:427–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schmidt LH (1973) Infections with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in the owl monkey-model systems for basic biological and chemotherapeutic studies. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 67:446–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schmidt LH (1978 a) Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). I. The courses of untreated infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27:671–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Schmidt LH (1978 b) Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) II. Responses to chloroquine, quinine, and pyrimethamine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27:703–717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Schmidt LH (1978 c) Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) III. Methods employed in the search for new blood schizonticidal drugs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27:718–737PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Schmidt LH (1979 a) Studies on the 2,4-diamino-6-substituted quinazolines. II. Activity of selected derivatives against infections with various drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in owl monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:793–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Schmidt LH (1979 b) Studies on the 2,4-diamino-6-substituted quinazolines. III. The capacity of sulfadiazine to enhance the activities of WR 158122 and WR 159412 against infections with various drug-susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in owl monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:808–818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Schmidt LH (1979 c) Antimalarial properties of floxacrine, a dihydroacridinedione derivative. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 16:475–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schmidt LH (1979 d) Experimental infections with human plasmodia in owl monkeys — their contribution to development of new broadly active blood schizonticidal drugs. Adv Pharmacol Ther 10:79–90Google Scholar
  36. Schmidt LH, Crosby R (1978) Antimalarial activities of WR 194965, and α-amino-o-cresol derivative. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14:672–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schmidt LH, Crosby R (1978) Antimalarial activities of WR 194965, an α-amino-o-cresol Antimalarial activities of 2,4-diamino-6-[(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-nitroso-amino]-quinazoline (CI-679) as exhibited in rhesus monkeys infected with the Ro or Ro/PM strains of Plasmodium cynomolgi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28:781–792Google Scholar
  38. Schmidt LH, Rossan RN, Fradkin R, Woods J, Schulemann W, Kratz L (1966) Studies on the antimalarial activity of 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(bis-diethyl-aminoethyl)-amino-5-bromobenzene. Bull WHO 34:783–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Schmidt LH, Harrison J, Ellison R, Worcester P (1969) Activities of trimethoprim against infections with pyrimethamine susceptible and resistant strains of Plasmodium cynomolgi. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 131:294–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schmidt LH, Harrison J, Ellison R, Worcester P (1970) The activities of chlorinated lincomycin derivatives against infections with Plasmodium cynomolgi in Macaca mulatta. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Schmidt LH, Alexander S, Allen L, Rasco J (1977 a) Comparison of the curative antimalarial activities and toxicities of primaquine and its d and l isomers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 12:51–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schmidt LH, Harrison J, Rossan RN, Vaughan D, Crosby R (1977 b) Quantitative aspects of pyrimethamine-sulfonamide synergism. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26:837–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Schmidt LH, Vaughan D, Mueller D, Crosby R, Hamilton R (1977 c) Activities of various 4-aminoquinolines against infections with chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 11:826–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schmidt LH, Fradkin R, Vaughan D, Rasco J (1977d) Radical cure of infections with Plasmodium cynomolgi: a function of total 8-aminoquinoline dose. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26:1116–1128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Schmidt LH, Crosby R, Rasco J, Vaughan D (1978 a) Antimalarial properties of various 4-quinolinemethanols with special attention to WR 142490 (mefloquine). Antimicrob Agents Chemother 13:1011–1030PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schmidt LH, Crosby R, Rasco J, Vaughan D (1978 b) Antimalarial activities of various 9-phenanthrene-methanols with special attention to WR 122455 and WR 171669. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14:292–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schmidt LH, Crosby R, Rasco J, Vaughan D (1978 c) Antimalarial activities of 4-pyridinemethanols with special attention to WR 172435 and WR 180409. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14:420–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schmidt LH, Crosby R, Rasco J, Vaughan D (1978 d) The antimalarial activities of the 4-quinolinemethanols, WR 184806 and WR 226253. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14:680–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sodeman TM, Contacos PG, Collins WE, Smith CS, Jumper JR (1972) Studies on the prophylactic and radical curative activity of RC-12 against Plasmodium cynomolgi in Macaca mulatta. Bull WHO 47:425–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Thompson PE, Bayles A, Olszweski B (1969) PAM 1392 [2,4-diamino-6-(3,4-dichlorobenzylamino)-quinazoline] as a chemotherapeutic agent: Plasmodium berghei, P. cynomolgi, P. knowlesi, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Exp Parasitol 25:32–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thompson PE, Bayles A, Olszewski B (1970) Antimalarial activity of 2,4-diamino-6-[(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-nitros-amino]-quinazoline (CI-679 base) and CI-679 acetate. Laboratory studies in mice and rhesus monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19:12–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Voller A, Richards WHG, Hawkey CM, Ridley DS (1969) Human malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) in owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus). J Trop Med Hyg 72:153–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Ward RA, Hayes DE (1972) Sporozoite transmission of falciparum malaria (Vietnam, Smith strain) from monkey to monkey. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 66:670–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ward RA, Rutledge LC, Hickman RL (1969) Cyclical transmission of Chesson vivax malaria in subhuman primates. Nature 224:1126–1127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Young MD (1970) Natural and induced malarias in Western hemisphere monkeys. Lab Anim Care 20:361–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Young MD, Moore DV (1961) Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg 10:317–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Young MD, Porter JA Jr, Johnson CM (1966) Plasmodium vivax transmitted from man to monkey to man. Science 153:1006–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Young MD, Baerg DC, Rossan RN (1971) Sporozoite transmission and serial blood passage of Plasmodium vivax in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 65:835–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Young MD, Baerg DC, Rossan RN (1975) Experimental hosts for human plasmodia. Exp Parasitol 38:136–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Young MD, Baerg DC, Rossan RN (1976) Studies with induced malaria in Aotus monkeys. Lab Animal Sci 26:1131–1137Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. N. Rossan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations