Evaluation of Drug Resistance in Man

  • K. H. Rieckmann
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 68)

Abstract

Drug resistance in malaria can be defined as the “ability of a parasite strain to survive and/or multiply despite the administration and absorption of a drug given in doses equal to or higher than those usually recommended but within the limits of tolerance of the subject” (WHO 1967). Although this definition could logically be applied to include all plasmodial stages, it has generally been restricted to describe the drug susceptibility of asexual blood forms, presumably because this stage in the life cycle of the parasite produces the acute clinical symptoms observed during the course of a malaria infection. Resistance of asexual blood forms to drugs has been reported in all species of human plasmodia. However, because of the appearance of chloroquine-resistant infections of falciparum malaria about 2 decades ago, attention has been focused on developing procedures for assessing the response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and other antimalarial drugs.

Keywords

Sponge Tetracycline Chloro Nigeria Dispatch 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Black RH (1946) The effect of antimalarial drugs on Plasmodium falciparum (New Guinea strains) developing in vitro. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 40:163–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chin W, Contacos PG, Coatney GR, King HK (1966) The evaluation of Sulfonamides, alone or in combination with pyrimethamine, in the treatment of multi-resistant falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15:823–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Colwell EJ, Phintuyothin P, Sadudee N, Benjapong W, Neoypatimanondh S (1972) Evaluation of an in vitro technique for detecting chloroquine resistant falciparum malaria in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:6–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Comer RD, Young MD, Porter JA Jr, Gauld JR, Merritt W (1968) Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum on the Pacific coast of Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17:795–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Eastham GM, Rieckmann KH (1981) Field incubator for measuring drug susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum. J Trop Med Hyg 84:27–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ebisawa I, Fukuyama T, Kawamura Y (1976) Additional foci of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in East Kalimantan and West Irian, Indonesia. Trop Geogr Med 28:349–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kouznetsov RL, Rooney W, Wernsdorfer WH, El Gaddal AA, Payne D, Abdallas RE (1980) Use of the in vitro microtechnique for the assessment of drug sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum in Sennar, Sudan. Bull WHO 58:785–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Lopez Antuñano FJ, Wernsdorfer WH (1980) In vitro response of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum to mefloquine. Bull WHO 57:663–665Google Scholar
  9. Mackerras MJ, Ercole QN (1948) Observations on the action of paludrine on malarial parasites. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 41:365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Palmer TT, Townley LB, Yigzaw M, Armstrong JC (1976) Chloroquine sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum in Ethiopia. II. Results of an in vitro test. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25:10–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Peters W, Seaton DR (1971) Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 65:267–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Powell RD, Brewer GJ, Alving AS, Millar JW (1964) Studies on a strain of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum from Thailand. Bull WHO 30:29–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Rieckmann KH (1971) Determination of the drug sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum. JAMA 217:573–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Rieckmann KH (1972) In vitro assessment of the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine at Kisumu, Kenya and Lagos, Nigeria. WHO/MAL 72:792 (Cyclostyled report) WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  15. Rieckmann KH (1980) Susceptibility of cultured parasites of Plasmodium falciparum to antimalarial drugs. In: Rowe DS, Hirumi H (eds) The in vitro cultivation of the pathogens of tropical diseases. Tropical diseases research series, No. 3. Schwabe, Basel, pp 35-50Google Scholar
  16. Rieckmann KH, Lopez Antuñano FJ (1971) Chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in Brazil detected by a simple in vitro method. Bull WHO 45:157–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Rieckmann KH, McNamara JV, Frischer H, Stockert TA, Carson PE, Powell RD (1968) Effects of chloroquine, quinine, and cycloguanil upon the maturation of asexual erythrocytic forms of two strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17:661–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Rieckmann KH, Willerson WD Jr, Carson PE, Frischer H (1972) Effects of tetracycline against drug-resistant falciparum malaria. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 39:339–347Google Scholar
  19. Rieckmann KH, Trenholme GM, Williams RL, Carson PE, Frischer H, Desjardins RE (1974) Prophylactic activity of mefloquine hydrochloride (WR 142490) in drug-resistant malaria. Bull WHO 51:431–434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rieckmann KH, Sax LJ, Campbell GH, Mrema JE (1978) Drug sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum. An in vitro microtechnique. Lancet I:22–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sucharit P, Harinasuta T, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Tongprasroeth N, Kasemsuth R (1977) In vivo and in vitro studies of chloroquine-resistant malaria in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 71:401–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Trenholme GM, Williams RL, Frischer H, Carson PE, Rieckmann KH (1975) Host failure in treatment of malaria with sulfalene and pyrimethamine. Ann Intern Med 82:219–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Valera CV, Shute GT (1975) Preliminary studies on the response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine in the Philippines using the in vitro technique. WHO/MAL 75:852 (Cyclostyled report) WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  24. Walker AJ, Lopez Antuñano FJ (1968) Response to drugs of South American strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 62:654–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wernsdorfer WH, Kouznetsov RL (1980) Drug-resistant malaria — occurrence, control, and surveillance. Bull WHO 58:341–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. WHO (1967) Chemotherapy of malaria. Report of a WHO scientific group. WHO Tech Rep Ser 375:42Google Scholar
  27. WHO (1973) Chemotherapy of malaria and resistance to antimalarials. Report of a WHO scientific working group. WHO Tech Rep Ser 529:30Google Scholar
  28. WHO (1979) Instructions for use of the WHO test kit for assessment of the response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine. WHO/MAP 79:1 (Cyclostyled report) WHO GenevaGoogle Scholar
  29. Yisunsri L, Rieckmann KH (1980) In vitro microtechnique for determining the drug susceptibility of cultured parasites of Plasmodium falciparum. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 74:809–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. H. Rieckmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations