Nephrology pp 1196-1208 | Cite as

Classification and Characterization of Types of Distal Acidification Defects in Humans

  • Daniel C. Batlle
  • Taha Keilani


The distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) syndromes are usually characterized by the presence of a hyperchloremic type of metabolic acidosis often associated to either hypokalemia (classic RTA) or hyperkalemia (hyperkalemic types of RTA). Some patients, however, have subtle defects in urinary acidification not manifested by hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. The identification and classification of the various types of RTA are best approached from a mechanistic point of view and should take into consideration the site of the nephron responsible for the defect in acidification.


Renal Tubular Acidosis Sodium Transport Ammonium Excretion Distal Nephron Nephron Segment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel C. Batlle
    • 1
  • Taha Keilani
  1. 1.Northwestern University Medical School, Morton 3-615ChicagoUSA

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