Advertisement

The Morphology of Hormone Induced Structural Changes in the Female Breast

  • Roland Bässler
Conference paper
Part of the Current Topics in Pathology book series (CT PATHOLOGY, volume 53)

Abstract

Many morphological, physiological, and biochemical investigations have contributed to the classification of the endocrine regulatory mechanisms responsible for development and function of the mammary gland. These studies received their crucial impetus when the synthesis of the sex hormones had been achieved and from their experimental use. The history of the use of these drugs is thus also the history of the concept of control of the mammary gland by hormones. The individual factors and combinations of factors responsible for the normal growth of the glandular structure of the mammary gland, for its secretory function, and for its pathomorphology have been elucidated by systematic studies. The laws that have been discovered have led to a classification of reaction types and have made it possible for experimental observations to be compared with the responses of the human mammary gland. Current concepts of quantitative morphology and endocrinology have broadened our understanding of the mechanisms of the action of sex hormones on the mammary gland. Generally valid concepts of hormonal regulation of growth and metabolism have been derived from this.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adair, F. E.: Plasma cell mastitis. Arch. Surg. 26, 735–749 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahrén, K.: (a) The effect of various doses of oestrone and progesterone on mammary glands of castrated hypophysectomized rats injected with insulin. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 30, 435–458 (1959).Google Scholar
  3. Ahrén, K.: (b) Mammary gland development in hypophysectomized rats injected with anterior pituitary hormones and testosterone. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 31, 228–240 (1959).Google Scholar
  4. Ahrén, K., Etienne, M.: Stimulation of mammary glands in hypophysectomized male rats treated with ovarian hormones and insulin. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 28, 89–102 (1958).Google Scholar
  5. Ahrén, K., Etienne, M.: The effect of testosterone alone and combined with insulin on the mammary glands of castrated and hypophysectomized rats. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 30, 109–136 (1959).Google Scholar
  6. Ahrén, K., Hamberger, L.: Direct action of testosterone propionate on the rat mammary gland. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 40, 265–276 (1962).Google Scholar
  7. Ahrén, K., Jacobsohn, D.: Mammary gland growth in hypophysectomized rats injected with ovarian hormones and insulin. Acta physiol. scand. 37, 190–203 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ahrén, K., Jacobsohn, D.: The action of Cortison on the mammary glands of rats under various states of hormonal imbalance. Acta physiol. scand. 40, 254–274 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahumada, I. C., Del Castillo, E. B.: Amenorrea galactorrea. Biol. Soc. obstet, y Ginec. 11, 64–72 (1932).Google Scholar
  10. Albores Culebro, C.: Un caso de ginecomastia o andro galactozemia. Toréon méd. 1, 80 (1946).Google Scholar
  11. Altmann, H. W.: Der Zellersatz, insbesondere an den parenchymatösen Organen. Verh. dtsch. Ges. Path. 50, 15–51 (1966).Google Scholar
  12. Anderson, R. R., Brookreson, A. D., Turner, C.W.: Experimental growth of mammary gland in male and female mice. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 106, 567–570 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Argonz, J., Del Castillo, E. B.: A syndrome characterized by estrogenic insufficiency, galactorrhea and decreased urinary gonadotropin. J. clin. Endocr. 13, 79–87 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Arhelger, St. W., Husely, R. A.: Estrogen-Androgen antagonism: Histology of mammary glands and vaginal grafts of male mice receiving estrogens. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 76, 811–817 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aristoteles: Historia animalium. Lit. III. c. 20. Zit. nach Wenner.Google Scholar
  16. Asboe-Hansen, G.: Hormonal effects on connective tissue. Physiol. Rev. (Baltimore) 38, 446–462 (1958).Google Scholar
  17. Asboe-Hansen, G.: Endocrine control of connective tissue. Amer. J. Med. 26, 470–484 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Astwood, E. B., Geschickter, C. F.: Changes in mammary gland of rat produced by various glandular preparations. Arch. Surg. 36, 672–697 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Astwood, E. B., Geschickter, C. F., Rausch, E. O.: Development of the mammary gland of the rat. A study of normal, experimental and pathologic changes and their endocrine relationships. Amer. J. Anat. 61, 373–405 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Averbach, M. M.: Über die Histogenese der Mastopathien und Fibroadenome der Mammae. Arch. Path. (Moskau) 18, H. 3, 65–71 (1956) [Russisch]. Ref. Ber. allg. spez. Path. 34, 186 (1957).Google Scholar
  21. Averill, R. L. W.: The hypothalamus and lactation. Brit. med. Bull. 22, 261–265 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Averill, R. L. W., Ray, E. W., Lyons, W. R.: Maintenance of pregnancy in hypophysectomized rats with placental implants. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 75, 3–6 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bässler, R.: Zur Pathologie der kindlichen Brustdrüsen. Beitr. path. Anat. 118, 390–406 (1957).Google Scholar
  24. Bässler, R.: Beiträge zur Morphologie der kindlichen Brustdrüse. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 69, 37–52 (1958).Google Scholar
  25. Bässler, R.: Elektronenmikroskopische Beobachtungen bei experimenteller Milchstauung. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 71, 398–422 (1961).Google Scholar
  26. Bässler, R.: Formen der Makromastie. Beitr. path. Anat. 133, 430–460 (1966).Google Scholar
  27. Bässler, R.: Neuere Aspekte der normalen und pathologischen Feinstruktur der Mamma. Hippokrates (Stuttg.) 39, 237–244 (1968).Google Scholar
  28. Bässler, R.: Das sogenannte lobuläre Carcinom der Mamma. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 94, 108–113 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bässler, R., Brethfeld, V.: Enzymhistochemische Studien an der Milchdrüse. Gravidität-Laktation, Involution und experimentelle Stauung mit besonderer Berück, sichtigung myoepithelialer Zellen. Histochemie 15, 270–286 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bässler, R., Flörchinger, J.: (a) Histometrische Studien an der laktierenden Milchdrüse. I. Mitteilung: Lactation und physiologische Involution. Arch. Gynäk. 203, 366–399 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bässler, R., Flörchinger, J.: (b) Histometrische Studien an der lactierenden Milchdrüse. II. Mitteilung: Experimentelle Milchstauung und vermehrtes Flüssigkeitsangebot durch Periston-infusionen. Arch. Gynäk. 203, 400–422 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Bässler, R., Forssmann, W.: Experimenteller Strukturwandel der Drüsenzelle durch Hormonwirkung. Verh. dtsch. Ges. Path. 48, 240–244 (1964).Google Scholar
  33. Bässler, R., Paek, S.: Histochemisches Enzymmuster der Mamma unter dem experimentellen Einfluß von Geschlechtshormonen. Histochemie 13, 29–44 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bässler, R., Schäfer, A.: Elektronenmikroskopische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Morphologie der Gynäkomastie. Verh. dtsch. Ges. Path. 52, 491–498 (1968).Google Scholar
  35. Bässler, R., Schäfer, A.: (a) Elektronenmikroskopische Cytomorphologie der Gynäkomastie. Virchows Arch. Abt. A Path Anat. 348, 356–373 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bässler, R., Schäfer, A.: (b) Elektronenmikroskopische Cytomorphologie der männlichen Brustdrüse. Z. Zellforsch. 101, 355–366 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bässler, R., Schäfer, A., Paek, S.: Elektronenmikroskopische und histochemische Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Funktion myoepithelialer Zellen. Verh. dtsch. Ges. Path. 51, 301–307 (1967).Google Scholar
  38. Bässler, R., Schulze, G., Schriever, D.: Histochemische Untersuchungen am Bindegewebe der hormonal stimulierten Mamma. Experimentelle Beiträge zur Pathogenese von Fibrosierungen in der Brustdrüse. Beitr. path. Anat. (in press).Google Scholar
  39. Baldwin, R. L., Martin, R. J.: Protein and nuclein acid synthesis in rat mammary glands during early lactation. Endocrinology 82, 1209–1216 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Balinsky, B.I.: (a) On the prenatal growth of the mammary gland rudiment in the mouse. J. Anat. (Lond.) 84, 227–235 (1950).Google Scholar
  41. Balinsky, B.I.: (b) On the developmental processes in mammary glands and other epidermal structures. Trans, roy. Soc. Edinb. 62, 1–31 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Banerjee, M. R., Walker, R. J.: Variable duration of DNA-synthesis in mammary gland cells during pregnancy and lactation of C3H/HE mouse. J. Cell Physiol. 69, 133–142 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bardin, C. W., Liebelt, A. G., Liebelt, R. A.: The direct effect of pituitary isografts on mammary gland development in the mouse. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 110, 716–718 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Bardin, C. W., Liebelt, A. G., Liebelt, R. A.: Effect of hypophysial isografts on the mammary glands of intact and hypophysectomized mice. Endocrinology 74, 586–592 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Bargmann, W., Fleischhauer, K., Knoop, A.: Über die Morphologie der Milchsekretion. II. Zugleich eine Kritik am Schema der Sekretionsmorphologie. Z. Zellforsch. 53, 545–568 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Beato, M., Dienstbach, F.: Effect of estrogens and gestagens on the duration of DNA synthesis in the genital tract of ovariectomized mice. Virchows Arch. Abt. B. Zellpath. 1, 197–200 (1968).Google Scholar
  47. Bengtsson, B., Norgren, A.: Interactions of oestrone and testosterone on mammary glands of male rabbit. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 36, 141–156 (1961).Google Scholar
  48. Benson, G. K., Cowie, A. T., Cox, C. P., Flux, D. S., Folley, S. J.: Studies on the hormonal induction of mammary growth and lactation in the goat. II. Functional and morphological studies of hormonally developed udders with special reference to the effect of “triggering” doses of oestrogen. J. Endocr. 13, 46–58 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Benson, G. K., Cowie, A. T., Cox, C. P., Flux, D. S., Folley, S. J., Folley, S. J., Hosking, Z. D.: Relative efficiency of hexoestrol and progesterone as oily solutions and as crystalline suspensions in inducing mammary growth and lactation in early and late ovariectomized goats. J. Endocr. 31, 157–164 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Benson, G. K., Cowie, A. T., Cox, C. P., Flux, D. S., Folley, S. J., Goldzweig, S.A.: Effects of oestrone and progesterone on mammary development in guinea-pig. J. Endocr. 15, 126–144 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Benson, G. K., Cowie, A. T., Folley, S. J., Tindal, J. S.: Recent developments in endocrine studies on mammary growth and lactation. In: Recent progress in the endocrinology of reproduktion (C. W. Lloyd, ed.), p. 457–490. New York: Academic Press 1959.Google Scholar
  52. Benson, G. K., Folley, S. J.: (a) Oxytocin as stimulator for the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary. Nature (Lond.) 177, 700 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Benson, G. K., Folley, S. J.: (b) Retardation of mammary involution in the rat by oxytocin. J. Endocr. 14, 42 (1957).Google Scholar
  54. Benson, G. K., Folley, S. J.: (c) The effect of oxytocin on mammary gland involution in the rat. J. Endocr. 16, 189–201 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Berde, B.: Recent progress in oxytocin research. Amer. Lect. Series. Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas Publ. 1959.Google Scholar
  56. Berde, B., Cerletti, A.: Über die Wirkung pharmakologischer Oxytocindosen auf die Milchdrüse. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 34, 543–557 (1960).Google Scholar
  57. Berger, H.: Beitrag zur elektronenoptischen Zelldifferenzierung des soliden Mamma-carcinoms und der Mastopathia cystica des Menschen. Z. Krebsforsch. 66, 73–86 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Berk, F.: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der ersten Anlage der menschlichen Brustdrüse. Med. Inaug.-Diss. Greifswald 1913.Google Scholar
  59. Berka, F.: Die Brustdrüse verschiedener Altersstufen und während der Schwangerschaft. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 8, 203–256 (1911).Google Scholar
  60. Berswordt-Wallrabe, R. v.: (a) Die Hemmung der Galaktopoese der Albinomaus durch Dienöstroldiacetat und ihre Auswirkungen auf das inkretorische System. Arch. Gynäk. 190, 549–618 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Berswordt-Wallrabe, R. v.: (b) Versuch einer theoretischen Erklärung der Hemmung der Galaktopoese der Albinomaus durch Dienöstroldiacetat. Arch. Gynäk. 190, 619–637 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Berswordt-Wallrabe, R. v., Turner, C. W.: (a) Mammogenesis in ovary-thyro-parathyroidectomized rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 103, 536–537 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Berswordt-Wallrabe, R. v., Turner, C. W.: (b) Dihydrotachysterol (AT 10) and mammogenesis in ovary-thyro-para- thyroidectomized rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 104, 599–602 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Biedermann, K.: Das Verhalten des Genitalapparates weiblicher Ratten bei langdauernder Follikelhormonzufuhr. Arch. Gynäk. 167, 465–476 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Bittorf, A.: Nebennierentumor und Geschlechtsdrüsenausfall beim Manne. Berl. klin. Wschr. 56, 776 (1919).Google Scholar
  66. Bloch, K.: Zur Pathogenese der Mammahypertrophie bei der Digitalisapplikation. Z. Kreisl.-Forsch. 50, 591–595 (1961).Google Scholar
  67. Böhmig, R.: (a) Die Epithelproliferationen bei der Mastopathia fibrosa cystica. Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat. 89, 297–313 (1952).Google Scholar
  68. Böhmig, R.: Mastopathia fibrosa cystica. Ergebn. allg. Path. path. Anat. 45, 39–116 (1964).Google Scholar
  69. Boemke, F., Birkle, K.: Zur Ätiologie der Fibrosis mammae virilis. Klin. Wschr. 1949, 93–96.Google Scholar
  70. Bohle, A.: Beitrag zur Frage der Elástica-Vermehrung in Mammatumoren. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 62, 167–183 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Bottomley, A. C., Folley, S. J.: Effect of androgenic substances on growth of teat and mammary gland in immature male guinea pig. Proc. roy. Soc., London, Biol. Sci. 126, 224–241 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Bradley, T. R., Cowie, A. T. : (a) The effects of hypophysectomy on the in vitro metabolism of mammary gland slices from lactating rats. J. Endocr. 14, 8–15 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Bradley, T. R., Clark, P. M.: (b) The response of rabbit mammary glands to locally administered prolactin. J. Endocr. 14, 28–36 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Brandes, D., Anton, E., Barnard, S.: Lysosomes and cellular regressive changes in rat mammary gland involution. Lab. Invest. 20, 465–471 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Brandt, G.: Die experimentelle Pathomorphogenese intramammärer Verkalkungen. Inaug.-Diss. Mainz, 1968.Google Scholar
  76. Brandt, G., Bässler, R.: Calciphylaktische Reaktionen der Mamma. Vortrag z. Tagg der nordwestdeutschen Pathologen, Bielefeld, 11.–13. Okt. 1968. Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat. (in press).Google Scholar
  77. Brandt, G., Bässler, R.: Pathomorphogenese experimenteller Verkalkungen in der weiblichen Brustdrüse. Virchows Arch. Abt. A Path. Anat. 348, 139–154 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Bredt, H.: Über Wesen und Formen der Gynäkomastie. Z. menschl. Vererb.- u. Konstit.-Lehre 17, 29–54 (1932).Google Scholar
  79. Bresciani, F.: DNA-synthesis in alveolar cells of the mammary gland: Acceleration by ovarian hormones. Science 146, 653–655 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Bresciani, F.: Effect of ovarian hormones on duration of DNA synthesis in cells of the C3H mouse mammary gland. Exp. Cell Res. 38, 13–32 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Broman, J.: Die Entwicklung des Menschen vor der Geburt. München: J. F. Bergmann 1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Brouha, H.: Recherches sur les diverses phases du développement et de l’activité de la mamelle. Arch. Biol. (Liège) 21, 459–605 (1905).Google Scholar
  83. Browning, H. C., White, W. D.: Local stimulation of mammary glands by pituitary or ovarian grafts in the mouse. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 23, 26–37 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Browning, H. C., White, W. D., Gibbs, W.: Comparative stimulation of mammary gland by pituitary isografts with or without ovarian transplants. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med., 22, No. 1, Spring (1964).Google Scholar
  85. Bunting, H.: The distribution of acid mucopolysaccharides in the mammalian tissues as revealed by histochemical methods. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 977–982 (1950).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Burrows, H.: Pathological changes induced in the mamma by oestrogenic compounds. Brit. J. Surg. 23, 191–213 (1935/36).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Busch, J. P. zum: Gynäkomastie bei Hypernephrom. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 53, 323 (1927).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Busch, W., Merker, H.-J.: Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen an menschlichen Mammacarcinomen. Virchows Arch. Abt. A Path. Anat. 344, 356–371 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Calov, W. L., Whyte, H. M.: Oedema and mammary hypertrophia: Toxic effect of digitalis leaf. Med. J. Aust. 41, 556–557 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Canivenc, R., Mayer, G.: Nature du facteur lutéotrophic de placenta de rat. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 147, 1067–1070 (1953).Google Scholar
  91. Caspersson, T.: Cell growth and cell function. New York 1945.Google Scholar
  92. Catchpole, H. R., Lyons, W. R.: The lactation hormone of the hypophysis. Anat. Rec. 55, 48–49 (1933).Google Scholar
  93. Catchpole, H. R., Lyons, W. R., Regan, W. M.: Induction of lactation in heifers with the hypophyseal lactogenic hormone. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 31, 301–303 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Chain, E., Duthie, E. S.: Identity of hyaluronidase and opreading factor. Brit. J. exp. Path. 21, 324–338 (1940).Google Scholar
  95. Chalkley, H. W.: Method for the quantitative morphologic analysis of tissues. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 4, 47–53 (1943).Google Scholar
  96. Chamberlin, T. L., Gardner, W. U., Allen, E.: Local responses of the sexual skin and mammary glands monkeys to cutaneus applications of estrogen. Endocrinology 28, 753–757 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Chamorro, A.:Action de la progesteron seule sur la glande mammaire. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 138, 453–456 (1944).Google Scholar
  98. Chaudhury, R. R., Walker, J. M.: Rate of disappearance of injected oxytocin from the blood. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 138, 50–61 (1957).Google Scholar
  99. Cheatle, G. L., Cutler, M.: Tumors of the breast. London: Ed. Arnold & Co. 1931Google Scholar
  100. Chen, Th. T., Johnson, R. E., Lyons, W. R., Li, C. H., Cole, D. R.: Hormonally induced mammary growth and lactation in the absence of the thyreoid. Endocrinology 57, 153–174 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Chentsov, Y., Chentsov, S.: Electron microscopy of rat mammary, glands on lactation, hormonal stimulation and in the case of postradiation fibroadenoma. Acta Un. int. Cancr. 20, 1377–1378 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Chiquoine, A. D.: The identification and electron microscopy of myoepithelial cells in the harderian gland. Anat. Rec. 132, 569–584 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Clark, B. G., Shapiro, S., Monroe, R. G.: Postthyroidectomie, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, exophthalamus and galactorrhoea with normal menstruation: metabolic response to propened. J. clin. Endocr. 16, 1245–1251 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Clifton, K. H., Fürth, J.: Ducto-alveolar growth in mammary glands of adreno-gonadectomized male rats bearing mammatropic pituitary tumors. Endocrinology 66, 893–897 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Cole, R., Hopkins, T. R.: Maintenance of the mammary gland in hypophysecto-mized — oophorectomized rats by injection of protein. Endocrinology 71, 395–398 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Consolandi, G.: La problema de cancero gelatinoso della mamella. Lav. 1st. Anat. Univ. Perugia 6, 35–76, 119–155 (1947).Google Scholar
  107. Cooke, J. V.: Chorio-epithelioma of the testicle. Bull.-Johns Hopk. Hosp. 26, 215–221 (1915).Google Scholar
  108. Copeland, M. M.: New aspects of benign tumours of the breast. Arch. Surg. 55, 590–621 (1947).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Corner, G. W.: The hormonal control of lactation. Amer. J. Physiol. 95, 43–55 (1930).Google Scholar
  110. Cowie, A. T.: The relative growth of the mammary gland in normal, gonadectomized and adrenalectomized rats. J. Endocr. 6, 145–147 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Cowie, A. T.: Recent studies on the endocrine control of the mammary development and milk secretion. Colloq. int. Cent. nat. Rech. sci., No. 32, p. 45–57 (1951).Google Scholar
  112. Cowie, A. T.: The hormonal control of milk secretion. In: Milk: The mammary gland and its secretion, ed. by S. K. Kon and A. T. Cowie, vol. I. New York and London: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  113. Cowie, A. T., Folley, S. J.: Parathyreoidectomy and lactation in the rat. Nature (Lond.) 156, 719–721 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Cowie, A. T., Folley, S. J.: The mammary gland and lactation. In: Sex and internal secretions, ed. by W. C. Young and G. W. Corner, vol. II, p. 590–642. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co. 1961.Google Scholar
  115. Cowie, A. T., Folley, S. J., Cross, B. A., Harris, G. W., Jacobsohn, D., Richardson, K. C.: Terminology for use in lactational physiology. Nature (Lond.) 168, 421 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Cowie, A. T., Folley, S. J., Malpress, F. H., Richardson, K. C.: Studies on the hormonal induction of mammary growth and lactation in the goat. J. Endocr. 8, 64–88 (1952).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Cowie, A. T., Lyons, W. R.: Mammogenesis and lactogenesis in hypophysectomized, ovar-ectomized, adrenalectomized rats. J. Endocr. 19, 29–32 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Cowie, A. T., Tindal, J. S., Yokoyama, A.: The induction of mammary growth in the hypophysectomized goat. J. Endocr. 34, 185–195 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Curtiss, C.: Factors influencing lobulo-alveolar development and mammary secretion in the rat. Endocrinology 45, 284–295 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Cutler, M.: Benign lesion of the female breast simulating cancer. J. Amer. med. Ass. 101, 1217–1222 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Cutler, M.: Tumors of the breast. Philadelphia: Lippincott 1961.Google Scholar
  122. Daane, Th. A., Lyons, W. R.: Effect of estrone, progesterone and pituitary mammotropin on the mammary glands of castrated C3H male mice. Endocrinology 55, 191–199 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Dabelow, A.: Der Entfaltungsmechanismus der Mamma. I. Das Verhalten von Gefäßsystem und Drüsenbaum während der Laktationsentwicklung der Mamma bei Maus, Ratte, Meerschweinchen und Kaninchen. Morph. Jb. 73, 69–99 (1934).Google Scholar
  124. Dabelow, A.: Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung einiger Drüsen, ihrer Gefäßbäume und ihrem Verhalten zum umgebenden Gewebe. Verh. an at. Ges. (Jena), p. 165–188 (1934).Google Scholar
  125. Dabelow, A.: Der Entfaltungsmechanismus der Mamma. II. Die postnatale Entwicklung der menschlichen Milchdrüse und ihre Korrelationen. Morph. Jb. 85, 361–416 (1941).Google Scholar
  126. Dabelow, A.: Die Milchdrüse. In: Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen, hrsg. von W. v. Moellendorff u. W. Bargmann, Haut- und Sinnesorgane, Ergänz, zu Bd. 3/1, S. 277ff. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1957.Google Scholar
  127. Damm, H. C., Turner, C. W.: Effects of anterior pituitary preparations on mammary gland growth in mouse. Prox. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 107, 893–895 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Danowski, T. S.: Clinical endocrinology, vol. I. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Comp. 1962.Google Scholar
  129. Dawson, E. K.: Carcinoma in the mammary lobule and its origin. Edinb. med. J. 40, 57–60 (1933).Google Scholar
  130. Dellweg, H.: Antibiotica und Hormone — ihre Wirkung auf die Biosynthese von Nucleinsäuren und Proteinen. In: Molekularbiologie, hrsg. von T. Wieland und G. Pfleiderer, S. 83–94. Frankfurt/M.: Umschau Verlag 1967.Google Scholar
  131. Dempsey, E. A., Bunting, H., Wislocki, G. B.: Observations on the chemical cytology of the mammary gland. Amer. J. Anat. 81, 309–341 (1947).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Desclin, L.: (a) L’ocytocine peut — elle déclencher la libération de lutéotrophine hypophysäre chez la rat? C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 150, 1489–1491 (1956).Google Scholar
  133. Desclin, L.: (b) Hypothalamus et libération d’hormone lutéotrophique. Expériences de greffe hypophysaire chez la rat hypophysectomisée. Action lutéotrophique de l’ocytocine. Ann. Endocr. (Paris) 17, 586–595 (1956).Google Scholar
  134. Diczfalusy, E., Tillinger, K. G., Westman, A.: Studies on oestrogen metabolism in new born boys. I and II. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 26, 303–312 and 313–321 (1957).Google Scholar
  135. Dieckmann, H.: Über die Histologie der Brustdrüse bei gestörtem und ungestörtem Menstruationsablauf. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 256, 321–356 (1925).Google Scholar
  136. Djojosoebagio, S., Turner, C. W.: (a) The effect of crystalline dihydrotachysterol on milk secretion in thyroparathyreoidectomized lactating rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 116, 909–912 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Djojosoebagio, S., Turner, C. W.: (b) Effects of parathyreoid extract calciferol, hytakerol and crystalline dihydrotachysterol on feed consumption in normal lactating rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 116, 646–648 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Djojosoebagio, S., Turner, C. W.: (c) Effects of parathyreoid extract, dihydrotachysterol (hytakerol) and calciferol on milk secretion in rats. Endocrinology 74, 554–558 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Donovan, B. T., Jacobsohn, D.: Testosterone and the growth of mammary glands and other tissues of hypophysectomized rats treated with thyroxine, insulin and cortisone. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 33, 214–229 (1960).Google Scholar
  140. Dorfman, R. I., Shipley, R. A.: In: Androgens. New York: J. Wiley & Son 1956.Google Scholar
  141. Dubois, J.: Méthode d’évolution quantitative du dévelopement de la glande mammaire chez la souris traitée par des corps oestrogènes. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 138, 149–151 (1944).Google Scholar
  142. Dumont, J. N.: Prolactin — induced cytologie changes in the mucosa of the pigeon crop during crop-“milk” formation. Z. Zeilforsch. 68, 755–782 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Duran-Reynals, F., Bunting, H., Wagenen, G. van: Studies on the sex skin of Macaca mulatta. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 52, 1006–1014 (1950).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Eggeling, H. von: Die Milchdrüse. In: Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen von v. Moellendorf, W. Bd. 1, Berlin: Springer 1927.Google Scholar
  145. Eisen, M. J.: The occurence of benign and melignant mammary lesions in rats treated with crystalline estrogene. Cancer Res. 2, 632–644 (1942).Google Scholar
  146. Eisenfeld, A. J., Axelrod, J.: Selectivity of estrogen distribution in tissues. J. Pharmacol, exp. Ther. 150, 469–475 (1965).Google Scholar
  147. Elger, W., Berswordt-Wallrabe, R. von, Neumann, F.: Der Einfluß von Antiandrogenen auf an drogenabhängige Vorgänge im Organismus. Naturwissenschaften 54, 549–552 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Elger, W., Neumann, F.: The role of androgens in differentiation of the mammary gland in male mouse fetuses. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 123, 637–640 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Ellis, R.: Fine structure of the myoepithelium of the eccrine sweat glands of man. J. Cell Biol. 27, 551–563 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Emge, L. A.: Estrogenic hormones and carcinogenesis. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 68, 472–479 (1939).Google Scholar
  151. Eskin, B. A., Bartuska, D. G., Dunn, M. R., Jacob, G., Dratman, M. D.: Mammary gland dysplasie in iodine deficiency studies in rats. J. Amer. med. Ass. 200, 691–695 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Fauvet, E.: Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung und Funktion der Milchdrüsen. V. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über den Einfluß der Ovarial-hormone auf die Milchdrüsen der Ratten. Arch. Gynäk. 170, 244–262 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Ferguson, D. J., Visscher, M. B.: The effects of androgen and estrogen in castrated and hypophysectomized C3H mice. Endocrinology 52, 463–473 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Ferguson, D. J., Endocrine control of mammary glands in C3H mice. Surgery 39, 30–36 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Ferreri, F. L., Griffith, D. R.: Effect of hydrocortisone acetate on mammary gland nucleic content of pregnant rats. Proc. exp. Soc. Biol. (N.Y.) 130, 1216–1218 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Fischer, R., Schaefer, H. E.: Geschlechtsdifferentes Vorkommen und östrogenabhängige Induktion der alkalischen Phosphatase in subkutanen Fibroblasten der Maus. Naturwissenschaften 54, 342–343 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Fiske, S. W. C., Courtecuisse, V., Haguenau, F.: High resolution autoradiographic study of normal lactating mammary gland and mammary tumors of the mouse: Preliminary report. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 39, 209–229 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Flux, D. S. : (a) Effect of 17-Vinyltestosterone on the mammae, uteri, thymus an adrenal glands of spayed female mice. Proc. S.c. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 85, 16–18 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Flux, D. S.: (b) The effect of adrenal steroids on the growth of the mammary glands, uteri, thymus and adrenal glands of intact, ovariectomized and oestrone-treated ovariectomized mice. J. Endocr. 11, 238–254 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Flux, D. S.: Mammary gland growth in male mice of the CHI strain after hypophysectomy and castration. J. Endocr. 17, 300–306 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Flux, D. S.: Munford, R. E.: The effect of adrenocorticotropin on the mammary glands of intact nature female mice of the Chi strain. J. Endocr. 14, 343–347 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Folley, S. J.: Lactation. Biol. Rev. 15, 421–458 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Folley, S. J.: The physiology and biochemistry of lactation. Edinburgh and London: Oliver & Boyd 1956.Google Scholar
  164. Folley, S. J.: (a) Endocrine control of the mammary gland. Mammary development. Brit. med. Bull. 5, 130–134 (1947).Google Scholar
  165. Folley, S. J.: (b) Lactation. Brit. med. Bull. 5, 135–141 (1947).Google Scholar
  166. Folley, S. J.: Some effects of steroids on the mammary gland. In: Ciba foundation Colloquia on Endocrinology, ed. by G. E. W. Wolstenholme, vol. I, p. 69–86. London: J. & A. Churchill 1952.Google Scholar
  167. Folley, S. J.: Hormones in mammary and function. Brit. med. Bull. 11, 145–150 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Folley, S. J., Greenbaum, A. L.: Changes in the arginase and alkaline phosphatase contents of the mammary gland and liver of the rat during pregnancy, lactation and mammary involution. Biochem. J. 41, 261–269 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Folley, S. J., Gutkelch, A. N., Zuckerman, S.: The mammary gland of the rhesus monkey and normal and experimental conditions. Proc. roy. Soc., London, Biol. Sci. 126, 469–491 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Folley, S. J., McNaught, M. L.: Biosynthesis of milkfat. In: Milk, the mammary gland and its secretion, ed. by S. K. Kon and A. T. Cowie, vol. 1, p. 441–479. New York and London: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  171. Folley, S. J., Young, F. G.: Prolactin as a specific lactogenic hormone. Lancet 1941, 380–381.Google Scholar
  172. Foote, F. W., Stewart, F. W.: Lobular carcinoma in situ. A rare form of mammary cancer. Amer. J. Path. 17, 491–496 (1941).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Foote, F. W., Stewart, F. W.: Comparative studies of cancerous versus noncancerous breasts. Ann. Surg. 121, 197–222 (1945).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Forbes, A. P., Henneman, P. H., Griswold, G. C., Albright, F.: A syndrome, distinct from acromegaly, characterized by spontaneous lactation, amenorrhea, and low folliclestimulating hormone excretion. J. clin. Endocr. 11, 749 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Forbes, A. P., Henneman, P. H., Griswold, G. C., Albright, F.: Syndrome characterized by galactorrhoea, amenorrhoea and low urinary FSH: Comparison with acromegaly and normal lactation. J. clin. Endocr. 14, 265–271 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Forbes, Th. R.: Factor of age in the rate of absorption of, and in mammary stimulation by, testosterone monopropionate pellets in rats. Endocrinology 30, 765–766 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Forssmann, W. G.: Elektronenmikroskopische Morphologie der Sekretion des Tauben-kropfes unter dem Einfluß von Prolaktin. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 74, 512–533 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Forsyth, J. A., Folley, S. J., Chadwick, A.: Lactogenic and pigeon crop-stimulating activities of human pituitary growth hormone preparations. J. Endocr. 31, 115–126 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Frantz, V. K., Pickren, J. W., Melcher, G. W., Auchincloss, H.: Incidence of chronic cystic disease in so called “normal breasts”. Cancer (Philad.) 4, 762–783 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Frazier, C. N., Mu, J. W.: Development of female characteristics in adult male rabbits following prolonged administration of extrogenic substance. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 32, 997–1001 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Gardner, W. U.: Growth of the mammary glands in hypophysectomized mice. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 45, 835–837 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Gardner, W. U.: Inhibition of mammary growth by large amounts of estrogen. Endocrinology 28, 53–61 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Gardner, W. U., Smith, G. M., Strong, L. C.: Stimulation of abnormal mammary growth by large amounts of estrogenic hormone. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 33, 148–150 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Gardner, W. U., Strong, L. C.: The normal development of the mammary glands of virgin female mice of ten strains varying in susceptibility to spontaneous neoplasma. Amer. J. Cancer 25, 282–290 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Gardner, W. U., Turner, C. W.: The function, assay, and preparation of galactin, a lactation stimulating hormone of the anterior pituitary. Missouri Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 190 (1933).Google Scholar
  186. Gardner, W. U., White, A.: Mammary growth in hypophysectomized male mice receiving estrogen and prolactin. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 48, 590–592 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Garrett, F. A., Talmage, R. V.: The influence of relaxin on mammary gland development in guinea-pigs and rabbits. J. Endocr. 8, 336–340 (1952).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Geschickter, C. F.: The endocrine aspects of chronic cystic mastitis. Sth. Surg. 10, 457–486 (1941).Google Scholar
  189. Geschickter, C. F.: Diseases of the breast, 2nd ed. Philadelphia-London-Montreal: Lippincott 1948.Google Scholar
  190. Geschickter, C. F., Byrnes, E. W.: Factors influencing the development and time of appearance of mammary cancer in the rat in response to estrogen. Arch. Path. 33, 335–342 (1942).Google Scholar
  191. Geschickter, C. F., Hartman, C.G.: Mammary response to prolonged estrogenic stimulation in the monkey. Cancer (Philad.) 12, 767–781 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Geschickter, C. F., Speert, H.: Zit. nach Speert, 1948.Google Scholar
  193. Girardie, J., Wolff, E.: Localisation optique et ultrastructurale de l’activité phosphatasique alcaline dans Tepithélium mammaire. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 264, 2064–2067 (1967).Google Scholar
  194. Glock, G. E., McLean, P.: Further studies on the properties and assays of glucose- 6-phosphate-dehydrogenase and 6-phospho-gluconate-dehydrogenase of rat liver. Biochem. J. 55, 400–408 (1954).Google Scholar
  195. Glock, G. E., McLean, P.: Levels of enzymes of the direct oxydative pathway of carbohydrate metabolism in mammalian tissues and tumors. Biochem. J. 56, 171–175 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Gögl, H., Lang, F. J.: Brustdrüse. In: Lehrbuch der spez. pathologischen Anatomie von E.Kaufmann, hrsg. von M. Staemmler, 11./12. Aufl., II. Bd., l.Teil. Berlin: W. D. Gruyter & Co. 1957.Google Scholar
  197. Gössner, W.: Histochemischer Nachweis hydrolytischer Enzyme mit Hilfe der Azo- farbst off méthode. Histochemie 1, 48–96 (1959).Google Scholar
  198. Goldenberg, V. E., Wiegenstein, L., Mottet, N. K.: Florid breast fibroadenomas in patients taking hormonal oral contraceptives. Amer. J. clin. Path. 49, 58–59 (1968).Google Scholar
  199. Gomez, E. T., Turner, C. W.: Hypophysectomy and replacement therapy in relation to the growth and secretory activity of the mammary gland. Res. Bull. Mo. agrie. Exp. Sta. Nr. 259 (1937).Google Scholar
  200. Gorski, J., Noteboom, W. D., Nicolette, J. A.: Estrogen control of the synthesis of RNA and protein in the uterus. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 66, 91–110 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Graumann, W.: (a) Entwicklung des Milchstreifens. Z. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. 114, 500–510 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Graumann, W.: (b) Mikroskopische Anatomie der männlichen Brustdrüse. 1. Kindheit und Pubertät. Z. mikr.-anat. Forsch. 59, 358–380 (1952).Google Scholar
  203. Graumann, W.: (c) Mikroskopische Anatomie der männlichen Brustdrüse. 2. Mannesalter und Senium. Z. mikr.-anat. Forsch. 59, 523–557 (1953).Google Scholar
  204. Green, J. D., Harris, G. W.: The neurovascular link between the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis. J. Endocr. 5, 136–145 (1946/48).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Greenbaum, A. L., Slater, T. F.: Studies on the particulate components of rat mammary gland. II. Changes in the levels of the nucleic acids of the mammary glands of rats during pregnancy, lactation and mammary involution. Biochem. J. 66, 155–161 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Gregg, W. I.: Galactorrhoea after contraceptive hormones. New Engl. J. Med. 274, 1432–1434 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Griffith, D. R., Turner, C. W.: Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content of mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 95, 347–348 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Griffith, D. R., Turner, C. W.: Normal growth of rat mammary glands during pregnancy and lactation. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 102, 619–621 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Griffith, D. R., Turner, C. W.: (a) Normal growth of rat mammary glands during pregnancy and early lactation. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 106, 448–451 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Griffith, D. R., Turner, C. W.: (b) Thyroxine and mammary gland growth in rat. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 106, 873–874 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Griffith, D. R., Turner, C. W.: (c) Normal and experimental involution of rat mammary gland. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 107, 668–670 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Grosvenor, C.E., Turner, C. W.: (a) Evidence for adrenergic and cholinergic components in milk let down reflex in lactating rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 95, 719–722 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Grosvenor, C.E., Turner, C. W.: (b) Release and restoration of pituitary lactogen in response to nursing stimuli in lactating rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 96, 723–725 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Gruber, G. B.: Über die Milchdrüsenschwellung bei Neugeborenen. Z. Kinderheilk. 30, 336–362 (1921).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Grumbrecht, P.: Pathologische Auswirkungen des Follikelhormones. Arch. Gynäk. 170, 1–59 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Haagensen, C. D.: Diseases of the breast. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders 1956.Google Scholar
  217. Habbe, K.: Beitrag zur Frage über Granulosazelltumoren. Zbl. Gynäk. 55, 1088 (1931).Google Scholar
  218. Hadfield, D.: The nature and origin of the mammotrophic agent present in human female urine. Lancet 1957 I, 1058–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Hadfield, D., Young, S.: The controlling influence of the pituitary on the growth of the normal breast. Brit. J. Surg. 46, 265–273 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Haenel, H.: Ein Fall von dauernder Milchsekretion beim Manne. Münch. med. Wschr. 75, 261–263 (1928).Google Scholar
  221. Haguenau, F.: (a) Le cancer mammaire de la souris et de la femme étude comparative au microscope électronique. Path, et Biol. 7, 989–1015 (1959).Google Scholar
  222. Haguenau, F.: (b) zLes myofilaments de la cellule myoepithelial. Etude au microscope électronique. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 249, 182–184 (1959).Google Scholar
  223. Haguenau, F., Arnoult, J.: (c) Le cancer du sein chez la femme. Bull. Ass. franç. Cancer 46, 177–211 (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Hamada, H., Neumann, F., Junkmann, K.: Intrauterine antimaskuline Beeinflussung von Rattenfeten durch ein stark gestagen wirksames Steroid. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 44, 380–388 (1963).Google Scholar
  225. Hamberger, L., Ahrén, K.: Influence of the adrenal cortex on growth processes in the rat mammary gland. J. Endocr. 30, 171–179 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Hamperl, H.: Über die Myothelien (myo-epitheliale Elemente) der Brustdrüse. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 305, 171–215 (1940).Google Scholar
  227. Hancock, J., Brumby, P. J., Turner, C. W.: Hormonal induction of lactation in identicaltwin dairy cattle. N. Z. J. Sci. Tech. A, 36, 111–116 (1954).Google Scholar
  228. Hansen, R. G., Carlson, D.M.: General biochemistry of mammary tissue. In: Milk, the mammary gland and its secretion, ed. by S. K. Kon and A. T. Cowie, vol. 1, p. 371–388. New York and London: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  229. Hardy, M. H.: The Development in vitro of the Mammary Glands of the mouse. J. Anat. (Lond.) 84, 388–393 (1950).Google Scholar
  230. Hartmann, M.: Einführung in die allgemeine Biologie. Sammlung Göschen, Sammlung Bd. 96, 1956.Google Scholar
  231. Hayashida, T.: Further observations on the question of specificity of antihuman growth hormone rabbit serum. Endocrinology 70, 846–856 (1962).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Helminen, H. J., Ericsson, L. E., Orrenius, S.: Studies on the mammary gland involution. IV. Histochemical and biochemical observations on alterations in lysosomes and lysosomal enzymes. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 25, 240–252 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Herold, L., Effkemann, G.: Beziehungen des Follikelhormons zu patho-physio-logischen Wachstumsvorgängen der Brustdrüse. Arch. Gynäk. 163, 85–93, 94–101, 309–315 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Heuverswyn, J. van, Folley, S. J., Gardner, W. U.: Mammary growth in male mice receiving androgens, estrogens and desoxycorticosterone acetate. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 41, 389–392 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Hibbs, R. G.: The fine structure of the human eccrine sweat glands. Amer. J. Anat. 103, 201–218 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Higashi, K.: Studies on the prolactin-like substance in human placenta. Endocrin. Jap. 9, 1–11 (1962).Google Scholar
  237. Higuchi, K.: Die Gewebsmastzellen in der Mamma. Fol. haemat. (Lpz.) 40, 401–414 (1930).Google Scholar
  238. Höhn, E. O.: The effect of oestrone on the mammary gland of adrenalectomized guinea-pigs. J. Endocr. 16, 227–230 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Hoffmann, F.: Über die Wirkung des Follikelhormons auf den histologischen Aufbau der menschlichen Brustdrüse. Zbl. Gynäk. 63, 422–426 (1939).Google Scholar
  240. Holmes, R.: Alkaline phosphatase in the rabbit mammary gland. Nature (Lond.) 178, 311 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Holzner, J. H., Kaufmann, F.: Histochemische Untersuchungen über das Verhalten der Phosphatasen bei der zyklischen Mastopathie, beim Fibroadenom und Karzinom der menschlichen Brustdrüse. Krebsarzt 20, 185–192 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Hoshino, K.: Development and growth of mammary glands of CBA mice prenatally exposed to progesterone. Anat. Rec. 154, 360 (1966).Google Scholar
  243. Hughes, E. S. R.: The Development of the Mammary Gland. Ann. roy. Coll. Surg. Eng. 6, 99–119 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Humboldt, A. v.: Aus: Reise in die Aequinoktialgegenden. Ges. Werke, Stuttgart, Bd. 5, S. 230 (1889).Google Scholar
  245. Humphrey, L. J., Swedlow, M.: The relationship of breast disease to thyroid disease. Cancer (Philad.) 17, 1170–1173 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Hunter, J.: Observation on certain parts of the animal occonomy, p. 191–198: On a secretion in the crop of breeding pigeons, for the nourishment of their young. London 1786.Google Scholar
  247. Ihnen, M., Perez-Tamayo, R.: Breast stroma; morphological and histochemical study. Arch. Path. 56, 46–67 (1953).Google Scholar
  248. Ingleby, H.: Normal and pathologic proliferation in the breast with special reference to cystic disease. Arch. Path. 33, 573–589 (1942).Google Scholar
  249. Jacobsohn, D.: Action of estradiol monobenzoate on the mammary glands of hypo-physectomized rabbits. Acta physiol. scand. 32, 304–313 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Jacobsohn, D.: Thyroxin and the reaction of the mammary glands to ovarian steroids in hypo-physectomized rats. J. Physiol. (Proc. Physiol. Soc.) 148, 10–11 (1959).Google Scholar
  251. Jacobsohn, D.: Effects of thyroxine on growth of mammary glands, whole body, heart and liver in hypophysectomized rats treated with Insulin, Cortisone and ovarian steroids. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 35, 107–134 (1960).Google Scholar
  252. Jacobsohn, D.: Hormonal Regulation of Mammary Gland growth. In: Milk: The mammary gland and its secretion by Kon, S. K. and A. T. Cowie, vol. 1, p. 127–160. New York and London: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  253. Jacobsohn, D.: Modification by oestrogens of the reaction of the rat’s mammary gland to androgens. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 41, 88–100 (1962).Google Scholar
  254. Jacobsohn, D.: Norgren, A.: Estrogens and corticoids in relation to mammary gland growth in male rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 118, 1106–1109 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Jakobovits, A.: Extrapuerperale Milchabsonderung nach Kastration. Zbl. Gynäk. 82, 438–441 (1960).Google Scholar
  256. Jeffers, K. R.: Cytology of the mammary gland of the albino rat. I. Pregnancy, lactation and involution. Amer. J. Anat. 56, 257–277 (p 35).Google Scholar
  257. Jensen, E. V., Jacobson, H. J.: Basii guides to the mechanism of oestrogen action. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 18, 387–414 (1962).Google Scholar
  258. Jervell, K. J., Diniz, C. R., Mueller, G. C.: Early effects of estradiol on nuclei acid metabolism in the rat uterus. J. biol. Chem. 231, 945–948 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Johnson, R. M.: The effects of cortisone on lactation in rats. J. Anim. Sci. 15, 1288 (1956).Google Scholar
  260. Jacobsohn, D.: Effects of cortisone on lactation and involution of mammary glands in rats. J. Dairy Sci. 40, 625 (1957).Google Scholar
  261. Jacobsohn, D., Meites, J.: Effects of cortisone, hydrocortisone and ACTH on mammary growth and pituitary prolactin content of rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 89, 455–458 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Jones, D. B.: Florid papillomatosis of the nipple ducts. Cancer (Philad.) 8, 315–319 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Josimovich, J. B., McLaren, J. A.: Presence in the human placenta and their serum of a highly lactogenic substance immunologically related to pituitary growth hormone. Endocrinology 71, 209–220 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Junkmann, K.: Die physiologische Chemie der inneren Sekretion. In: Flaschen-träger-Lehnartz, Handbuch der physiologischen Chemie, Bd. II. Der Stoffwechsel, 2. Teil/Bandteil 6, S. 485–488. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1957.Google Scholar
  265. Junkmann, K., Neumann, F.: Zum Wirkungsmechanismus von an Feten antimaskulin wirksamen Gestagenen. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) Suppl. 90, 139–154 (1964).Google Scholar
  266. Karlson, P.: Biochemische Wirkungsweise der Hormone. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 86, 668–674 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Junkmann, K.: Morphogenese und Metamorphose der Insekten. 13. Colloquium Ges. physiol. Chemie, S. 101–126 (1962).Google Scholar
  268. Junkmann, K.: Chemie und Biochemie der Insektenhormone. Angew. Chemie 75, 257–265 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Karsner, H. T.: Gynecomastia. Amer. J. Path. 22, 235–315 (1946).Google Scholar
  270. King, R. J. B., Gordon, J., Inman, D. R.: The intracellular localization of oestrogen in rat tissues. J. Endocr. 32, 9–15 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. King, R. J. B., Gordon, J., Cowan, D. M., Inman, D. R.: The intranuclear localization of 6,7-3H oestradiol-17 in dimethyl-benzanthracen-induced. Rat mammary adenocarcinoma and other tissue. J. Endocr. 36, 139–150 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Kirkham, W. R., Turner, C. W.: Nucleic acids of the mammary glands of rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 83, 123–126 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Kirkham, W. R., Turner, C. W.: Introduction of mammary growth in rats by estrogen and progesterone. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 87, 139–141 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Rocharian, C.D.: Regulation of ribonucleic acid biosynthesis in the mouse kidney by androgens. Proc. 2nd Internat. Congr. on Hormonal Steroids, 1967, p. 794–802.Google Scholar
  275. Koelliker, A.: Mikroskopische Anatomie oder Gewebelehre des Menschen, 2 Bd. Spezielle Gewebelehre. Leipzig. Engelmann 1852.Google Scholar
  276. Kon, S. K., Cowie, A. T.: Milk. The mammary gland and its secretion, vol. I. u. II. New York and London: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  277. Konjetzny, G. E.: Pathologie, Klinik und Behandlung der Mastopathie. Stuttgart 1942.Google Scholar
  278. Konjetzny, G. E.: Mastopathie und Milchdrüsenkrebs. Stuttgart: Enke Verlag 1954.Google Scholar
  279. Kracht, J., Hachmeister, M., Breustedt, H.-J., Zimmermann, H.-D.: Immun-histologische Hormonlokalisation im Hypophysenvorderlappen des Menschen. Materia Medica Nordmark XIX/ 4, 224–238 (1967).Google Scholar
  280. Kraus, E. J.: Zur Pathogenese der Galaktorrhoe. Arch. Gynäk. 159, 380–394 (1935).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Kueckens, H.: Zur Frage der zyklischen Veränderungen der Mamma und des menschlichen Scheidenepithels. Z. Geburtsh. 96, 55–76 (1929).Google Scholar
  282. Kunert, J.: Die Wirkung hoher Dosen örtlich verabreichten Follikelhormons auf die männliche Brustdrüse und das endokrine System. Experimentelle Studie zum Gynäkomastieproblem. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 62, 373–383 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Kuru, H.: Beiträge zur Geschwulstlehre. Dtsch. Z. Chir. 98, 414–463 (1909).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Kuzma, J. F.: Myoepithelial proliferations in the human breast. Amer. J. Path. 19, 473–489 (1943).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Labhart, A.: Klinik der inneren Sekretion. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Langer, E., Huhn, S.: Der submikroskopische Bau der Myoepithelzelle. Z. Zellforsch. 47, 507–516 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Lani, K.: Enzymhistochemische und morphologische Untersuchungen über die Prolaktinwirkung auf die Mamma. Inaug.-Diss. Mainz 1967.Google Scholar
  288. Lani, K., Bässler, R.: Tagg der nord- und westdeutschen Pathologen in Lüneburg 1967. Zbl. allg. Path. path. Anat. 111, 473 (1968).Google Scholar
  289. Laqueur, E., de Jongh, S. E.: Zur Wirkung des weiblichen Sexualhormons Men-formon, im besonderen auf die Mamma. Mschr. Geburtsh. 80, 245 (1928).Google Scholar
  290. Laqueur, G. L.: Effects of testosterone propionate on the mammary glands of female albino rats. Endocrinology 32, 81–86 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Laqueur, G. L., Fluhmann, C. F.: Effects of testosterone propionate in immature and adult female rats. Endocrinology 30, 93–101 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Lauritzen, C.: Oestrogerne und Gestagene beim Menschen. Naturw. Rdsch. 18, 7–16 (1965).Google Scholar
  293. Leeson, R.: (a) The histochemical identification of myoepithelium with particular reference to the Harderian and exorbital lacrimal glands. Acta anat. (Basel) 40, 87–94 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Leeson, R.: (b) The elctron microscopy of the myoepithelium in the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. Anat. Rec. 137, 45–55 (1960).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Leonard, S. L.: Stimulation of mammary glands in hypophysectomized rats by estrogen and testosterone. Endocrinology 32, 229–237 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Leonard, S. L., Reece, R.P.: The relation of the thyroid to mammary gland growth in the rat. Endocrinology 28, 65–69 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Leonard, S. L., Reece, R.P.: Failure of steroid hormones to induce mammary growth in hypophysectomized rats. Endocrinology 30, 32–36 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Letterer, E.: Die Morphologie der hormonalbedingten Veränderungen des Endometriums und der weiblichen Brustdrüse. Ärztl. Wschr. 1948, 230–236.Google Scholar
  299. Leuschner, U.: Über die Lokalisation von Mucopolysacchariden und Mastzellen in scirrhösen Karcinomen der Mamma. Acta histochem. (Jena) 34, 126–137 (1969).Google Scholar
  300. Levine, H. J., Bergenstal, D. M., Thomas, L. B.: Persistent lactation: Endocrine and histologic studies in 5 cases. Amer. J. med. Sci. 243, 118–128 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Lewis, A. A., Gomez, E. T., Turner, C. W.: Mammary gland development with mammogen in the castrate and the hypophysectomized rat. Endocrinology 30, 37–47 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Lewis, A. A., Turner, C. W.: Effect of stilbestrol on the mammary gland of the mouse, rat, rabbit and goat. J. Dairy Sci. 24, 845–860 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Lewis, A. A., Turner, C. W.: (a) Growth of the male guinea pig mammary gland with diethylstilbestrol. Endocrinology 30, 585–590 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Lewis, A. A., Turner, C. W.: (b) Mammogen and unilateral mammary growth in the rabbit. Endocrinology 30, 985–989 (1942).Google Scholar
  305. Lieser, H.: Beiträge zur Histologie und Feinstruktur der Mamma unter dem Ein- fluß von Geschlechtshormonen. Diss. Mainz 1964.Google Scholar
  306. Linzell, J. L.: The silver staining of myoepithelial cells, particulary in the mammary gland, and their relation of the ejection of milk. J. Anat. (Lond.) 86, 49–57 (1952).Google Scholar
  307. Linzell, J. L.: Some observations on the contractile tissue of the mammary glands. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 130, 257–267 (1955).Google Scholar
  308. Litten, L.: Die histologischen Grundlagen der Sekretion nicht-gravider Mammae. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 259, 126–146 (1926).Google Scholar
  309. Litwer, G.: Die histologischen Veränderungen der Kropfwanderung bei Tauben zur Zeit der Bebrütung und Ausfütterung ihrer Jungen. Z. Zellforsch. 3, 695–722 (1926).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Luchsinger, Y., Centeno, J.: Über die zyklischen Veränderungen der weiblichen Brustdrüse. Beitr. path. Anat. 78, 594–617 (1927).Google Scholar
  311. Lustig, H.: Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der menschlichen Brustdrüse. Arch. mikr. Anat. 87, 38–59 (1915).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Lyons, W. R.: The hormonal basis for “witches milk”. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 37, 207–209 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Lyons, W. R.: The direct mammotrophic action of lactogenic hormone. Proc. Soc. exper. Biol. (N. Y.) 51, 308–311 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Lyons, W. R.: Lobulo-alveolar mammary growth in the rat. Colloq. int. Cent. nat. Rech. sci. No. 32, 29–38 (1951).Google Scholar
  315. Lyons, W. R., Catchpole, H. R.: (a) “Assay with the guinea pig of the lactogenic hypophyseal hormone”. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 31, 299–301 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Lyons, W. R., Catchpole, H. R.: (b) “Availability of the rabbit for assay of the hypophyseal lactogenic hormone”. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 31, 305–309 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Lyons, W. R., Johnson, R. E., Cole, R. D., Li, C. H.: Mammary growth and lactation in male rats. In: The hypophyseal growth hormone, nature and actions (eds. R. W. Smith, O. A. Gaebler and C. N. H. Long), p. 461–472. New York: The Blakiston Division 1955.Google Scholar
  318. Lyons, W. R., Li, C. H., Johnson, R. E.: Localaction of pituitary and ovarian hormones on the mammary glands of hypophysectomized-oophorectomized rats. Anat. Rec. 127, 432–433 (1957).Google Scholar
  319. Lyons, W. R., Li, C. H., Johnson, R. E.: The hormonal control of mammary growth an lactation. Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 14, 219–254 (1958).Google Scholar
  320. Lyons, W. R., McGinty, D. A.: Effects of estrone and progesterone on male rabbit mammary gland. I. Varying doses of progesterone. Proc. Soc. exper. Biol. (N. Y.) 48, 83–86 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Maeder, L. M. A.: Changes in the mammary gland of the albino rat (Mus norvegicus albus) during lactation and involution. Amer. J. Anat. 31, 1–26 (1922/23).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Mahesh, V. B., Dalla Pria, S., Greenblatt, R. B.: Abnormal lactation with Cushing’s syndrom-a case report. J. clin. Endocr. 29, 978–981 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Masshoff, W.: Die physiologische Regeneration. In: Handbuch der allgemeinen Pathologie, Bd. VI/1, S. 489, von F. Büchner, E. Letterer und F. Roulet. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1955.Google Scholar
  324. Mayer, G., Klein, M.: Histology and cytology of the mammary gland. In: Milk: The mammary gland and its secretion, ed. by S. K. Kon and A. T. Cowie, vol. I, p. 47–126. New York and London: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  325. McCullagh, E., Alivisatos, J. G., Schaffenburg, C. A.: Pituitary tumor with gynecomastia and lactation. J. clin. Endocr. 16, 397–405 (1956).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. McDonald, G. J., Reece, R. P.: Quantitative response of rat mammary glands to mammogens. I. Estrogen alone with progesterone. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 110, 647–649 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. McEuen, C.S.: Some effects of prolonged administration of oestrin in rats. Lancet 1936 I, 775–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. McEuen, C.S.: Role of pituitary in effect of testosterone on the mammary gland. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 36, 213–215 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. McEuen, C.S.: Selye, H., Collip, J. B.: Effect of the testis on the mammary gland. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 35, 56–58 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Meier-Ruge, W.: Die diagnostische Bedeutung des Sexchromatingehaltes in Relation von Enzymhistochemie, DNS-Gehalt und Mitoseindex beim Mamma-carcinom. Verh. dtsch. Ges. Path. 50, 330–335 (1966).Google Scholar
  331. Meites, J.: (a) Mammary growth and lactation. In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ed. by H.H. Cole and P.T. Cupps, vol.1, p. 539–593. New York and London: Academic Press 1959.Google Scholar
  332. Meites, J.: (b) Induction and maintenance of mammary growth and lactation in rats with acetylcholin or epinephrine. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 100, 750–754 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Meites, J.: Farm animals: hormonal induction of lactation and galactopoesis. In: Milk: The mammary gland and its Secretion, ed. by S. K. Kon and A. T. Cowie. New York: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  334. Meites, J.: Maintenance of the mammary lobuloalveolar system in rats after adrenoorchid-ectomy by prolactin and growth hormone. Endocrinology 76, 1220–1223 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Meites, J.: Effects of altering the balance between prolactin and ovarian hormones on initiation of lactation in rabbits. Endocrinology 55, 530–534 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Meites, J., Sgouris, J. T.: Can the ovarian hormones inhibit the mammary response to the prolactin? Endocrinology 53, 17–23 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Meites, J., Turner, C. W.: The induction of lactation during pregnancy in rabbits on the specifity of the lactogenic hormone. Amer. J. Physiol. 150, 394–399 (1947).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. Merz, W.: Brustdrüsenschwellung bei Neugeborenen. Schweiz, med. Wschr. 11, 213–217 (1946).Google Scholar
  339. Meyer, H.: Experimentelle Pathomorphogenese der Mamma unter dem Einfluß männlicher Geschlechtshormone. Inaug.-Diss. Mainz, 1967.Google Scholar
  340. Mixner, J. P.: Influence of environmental temperature on growth of mammary lobule-alveolar system. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 48, 443–445 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Mixner, J. P.: (a) Role of estrogen in the stimulation of mammary lobule-alveolar growth by progesterone and by the mammogenic lobule-alveolar growth factor of the anterior pituitary. Endocrinology 30, 591–597 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Mixner, J. P.: (b) Progesterone like-activity of some steroid compounds and of diethylstilbestrol in stimulating mammary lobule-alveolar growth. Endocrinology 30, 706–710 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Mixner, J. P.: (c) Influence of thyroxine upon mammary lobule-alveolar growth. Endocrinology 31, 345–348 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Mixner, J. P.: The mammogenic hormones of the anterior pituitary. II. The lobulo-alveolar growth factor. Res. Bull. Mo. agric. Exp. Sta. 378 (1943).Google Scholar
  345. Mixner, J. P.: Strain differences in response of mice to mammary gland stimulating hormones. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 95, 87–89 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Mixner, J. P., Turner, C. W.: Growth of the lobule-alveolar system of the mammary gland with pregneninolone. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 47, 453–456 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Möbius, G., Nizze, H.: Mastopathia fibrosa cystica und Epithelproliferationen in der weiblichen Brustdrüse des Sektionsgutes. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 75, 297–305 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Moon, R. C.: Mammary gland cell content during various phases of lactating. Amer. J. Physiol. 203, 939–941 (1962).Google Scholar
  349. Moon, R. C.: Influence of graded thyroxin levels on mammary gland growth. Amer. J. Physiol. 203, 942–946 (1962).Google Scholar
  350. Moon, R. C., Griffith, D. R., Turner, C. W.: Normal and experimental growth of rat mammary gland. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 101, 788–790 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Moon, R. C., Turner, C. W.: Thyroid hormone and mammary growth in the rat. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 103, 149–151 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. Mosimann, W.: Vergrößerung der Kernvolumina in der Parathyreoidea und vermehrte Kalziumausscheidung in der Milch bei Ziegen nach künstlicher Auslösung der Laktation durch Oestrogen. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilk. 97, 178–187 (1955).Google Scholar
  353. Mosimann, W.: Das Volumen der Zellkerne im Epithel der Milchdrüse in Abhängigkeit vom Funktionszustand und bei Stilboestrol-Zufuhr. Z. mikr.-anat. Forsch. 63, 303–316 (1957).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Mühlbrock, O.: The oestrone-sensitivity of the mammary gland in female mice of various strains. Acta brev. neerl. physiol. 16, 22–27 (1948).Google Scholar
  355. Müllerheim, R.: Ovarialtumoren bei Greisinnen mit Hypertrophie der Mammae und des Uterus und mit uterinen Blutungen. Zbl. Gynäk. 52, 689 (1928).Google Scholar
  356. Munford, R. E.: The effect of Cortisol acetate on oestrone-induced mammary growth in immature ovariectomized albino mice. J. Endocr. 16, 72–79 (1957).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. Munford, R. E.: A reviev of anatomical and biochemical changes in the mammary gland with particular reference to quantitative methods of assessing mammary development. Dairy Sci., Abstr. 26, 293–304 (1964).Google Scholar
  358. Munger, B. L.: The ultrastructure and histophysiology of human eccrine sweat glands. J. biophys. biochem. Cytol. 11, 385–402 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. Munson, P. L.: Studies on the role of the parathyreoids in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 60, 776–795 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Murad, T. M., Haam, E. v.:Ultrastructure of myoepithelial cells in human mammary gland tumors. Cancer (Philad.) 21, 1137–1149 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Mylius, E. A.: The identification and the role of the myoepithelial cell in salivary gland tumors. Acta path, microbiol. scand., Suppl. 139, 50 (1960).Google Scholar
  362. Nandi, S.: (a) Role of somatotropin in mammogenesis and lactogenesis in C3H/He CRGL mice. Science 128, 772–774 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Nandi, S.: (b) Endocrine control of mammary gland development and function in the C3H/He CRGL mouse. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 21, 1939–1963 (1958).Google Scholar
  364. Nandi, S.: (c) Hormonal control of mammogenesis and lactogenesis in the C3H-He crgl. mouse. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 65, 1–128 (1959).Google Scholar
  365. Needham, D. M., Shoenberg, C. F.: Proteins of the contractile mechanismen of mammalian an smooth muscle and their possible location in the cell. Proc. roy. Soc., Ser. B (London) 160, 517–522 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Neimeier, R., Hauser, G. A., Keller, M., Labhardt, F., Wenner, R., Stampfli, V.: Die pathologische Lactation. Schweiz, med. Wschr. 89, 442–445 (1959).Google Scholar
  367. Nelson, W.O.: Endocrine control of the mammary gland. Physiol. Rev. 16, 488—526 (1936).Google Scholar
  368. Nelson, W.O.: Studies on the physiology of lactation. VI. The endocrine influences concerned in the development and function of the mammary gland in the guinea pig. Amer. J. Anat. 60, 341–365 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Nelson, W. O.: (a) Growth of mammary gland following local application of estrogenic hormone. Amer. J. Physiol. 133, 397–398 (1941).Google Scholar
  370. Nelson, W.O.: (b) Production of sex hormones in the adrenals. Anat. Rec., Suppl. 1, 81, 97 (1941).Google Scholar
  371. Nelson, W. O., Heytler, P. G., Ciacco, E. I.: Guinea pig mammary gland growth changes in weight, nitrogen and nucleic acids. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 109, 373–375 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Nelson, W. O., Merckel, C. G.: Effects of androgenic substances in the female rat. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 36, 823–825 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Neumann, F., Elger, W.: The effect of the anti-androgen 1,2 α-methylene-6-chloro- Δ 4,6 pregnandiene-17 α-ol-3,20-dione-17 α-acetate (cyproterone-acetate) on the development of the mammary glands of male foetal rats. J. Endocr. 36, 347–352 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Neumann, F., Elger, W.: Steroid stimulation of mammary glands in prenatally feminized male rats. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 1, 120–123 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Neumann, F., Elger, W.: Berswordt-Wallrabe, R. von: The structure of the mammary glands and lactogenesis in feminized male rats. J. Endocr. (Lond.) 36, 353–356 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Neumann, H. O., Oing, M.: Polymastie und Polythelie. Eine klinische Studie mit einem entwicklungsgeschichtlich-historischen Beitrag. Arch. Gynäk. 13, 494–542 (1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Newman, W.: In situ lobular carcinoma of the breast. Report of 26 woman with 32 cases. Ann. Surg. 157, 591–599 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Newman, W.: Lobular carcinoma of the female breast. Report of 73 cases. Ann. Surg. 164, 305–314 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Nicoll, C. S.: Growth autoregulation and the mammary gland. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 34, 131–140 (1965).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. Nicoll, C. S., Meites, J.: Prolactin secretion in vitro: effects of thyreoid hormones and insulin. Endocrinology 72, 544–551 (1963).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Noble, R. L., McEuen, C. S., Collip, J. B.: Mammary tumors produced in rats by the action of estrone tablets. Canad. med. Ass. J. 42, 412–417 (1940).Google Scholar
  382. Nordmann, M.: Fibrosis mammae virilis. Klin. Wschr. 26, 220–221 (1948).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Norgren, A.: Effects of different doses of oestrogen and progesterone on mammary glands of gonadectomized rabbits. Acta Univ. Lund. Sectio II, No. 31 (1966).Google Scholar
  384. Nyirjesy, I.: Galactorrhoea without amenorrhoea. J. Obstet, Gynec. 32, 52–57 (1968).Google Scholar
  385. Oestereich, R., Slawyk: Riesenwuchs und Zirbeldrüsen-Geschwulst. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 157, 475–484 (1899).Google Scholar
  386. Olivi, M., Barbieri, G.: La mastopathia fibrocistica. Lav. Ist. Anat. Univ. Perugia 12, 311–323 (1952).Google Scholar
  387. Overzier, C.: Gynäkomastie bei paradoxer Fettsucht — ein Beitrag zum Gynäko- mastieproblem. Ärztl. Wschr. 4, 4–10 (1949).Google Scholar
  388. Ozzello, L., Speer, F.D.: The mucopolysaccharides in the normal and diseased breast. Their distribution and significance. Amer. J. Path. 34, 993–1009 (1958).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Paek, S.: Histochemisches Enzymmuster der Mamma unter dem experimentellen Einfluß von Geschlechtshormonen. Inaug.-Diss. Mainz, 1967.Google Scholar
  390. Perrini, F.: Action of stilboestrol and progesterone on the mammary gland. G. Ostet. Ginec. 17, 59–74 (1953)Google Scholar
  391. Philipp, E.: Schwangerschaftsveränderungen beim Neugeborenen. Klin. Wschr. 17, 797–800 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. Price, D., Williams-Ashman, H. G.: The accessory reproductive glands of mammals. In: Sex and internalse cretions, 3d, ed. by Young, W. C., p. 366–448. Williams & Wilkins 1961.Google Scholar
  393. Rapoport, S. M.: Medizinische Biochemie, Berlin 1962.Google Scholar
  394. Ratzenhofer, M.: Zum Verhalten des Mesenchyms bei chronischer Mastopathie und Mammacarcinom. Wien. med. Wschr. 101, 681–686 (1951).Google Scholar
  395. Ratzenhofer, M., Schauenstein, E.: (a) Weitere biophysikalische Untersuchungen des Gewebs-saftes bei Mammacarcinom. Z. Krebsforsch. 58, 707–710 (1952).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. Ratzenhofer, M., Schauenstein, E.: (b) Über den Nachweis von Albuminen im Gewebssaft bei krebsig entarteter Mastopathie. Z. Krebsforsch. 58, 198–200 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. Ray, E. W., Averill, S. C., Lyons, W. R., Johnson, R. E.: Rat placental hormone activities corresponding to those of pituitary mammotropin. Endocrinology 56, 359–373 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. Raynaud, A.: (a) Effet des injections d’hormones sexuelles à la souris gravide, sur le développement des ébauches de la glande mammaire des embryous. I. A.tion des substances androgenes. Ann. Endocr. (Paris) 8, 248–253 (1947).Google Scholar
  399. Raynaud, A.: (b) Action de fortes doses des substances oestrogènes. Ann. Endocr. (Paris) 8, 318–329 (1947).Google Scholar
  400. Raynaud, A.: (c) Inhibition du développement des ébauches mammaires de l’embryon de souris sous l’effet d’une hormone oestrogène injectée directement á l’embryon. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 146, 544–549 (1952).Google Scholar
  401. Raynaud, A.: (d) Morphogenesis of the mammary gland. In: Milk: The mammary gland and its secretion, ed. by S. K. Kon, and A. T. Cowie, vol. I, p. 1–46. New York and London: Academic Press 1961.Google Scholar
  402. Raynaud, A.: (f) Le développement embryonnaire de la glande mammaire de la souris après destruction au moyen des rayons X des glandes génitales de l’embryon. Bull. Soc. zool. France, 74, 156–159 (1949).Google Scholar
  403. Raynaud, A.: (h) La production expérimental de malformations mammaires chez les foetus de souris par l’action des hormones sexuelles. A.n. Inst. Pasteur 90, 39–219 (1956).Google Scholar
  404. Raynaud, A.: Frilley, M.: (e) Etat de développement des ébauches mammaires et du cordon vaginal chez le foetus mâles et femelles de souris, dout les ébauches des glandes génitales ont été détruites par une irradiation au moyen des rayon X, a l’âge de treize jours. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 225, 1380–1382 (1947).Google Scholar
  405. Raynaud, A., Raynaud, J.: (g) Les diverses malformations mammaires produites chez les foetus de souris, par l’action des hormonelles sexuelles. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 148, 963–968 (1954).Google Scholar
  406. Reece, R. P., Mixner, J. P.: Effect of testosterone on pituitary and mammary gland. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 40, 66–67 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. Reece, R. P., Leathem, J. H.: Growth of mammary glands of hypophysectomized rats following estrogen and lactogen administration. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 59, 122–124 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. Reece, R. P., Leonard, S. L.: Lobule-alveolar growth of mammary glands of hypophysectomized female rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 49, 660–662 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. Rein, G.: Untersuchungen über die embryonale Entwicklungsgeschichte der Milchdrüse. Arch. mikr. Anat. 20, 431–501 (1882); 21, 678–694 (1882).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. Reinecke, E. P., Meites, J., Cairy, C. F., Huffman, D. F.: Hormonal induction for lactation in sterile cows. In: Proceedings annual meeting American Veterinary Medical Association, 1952, p. 325–328, Atlantic City. Amer. Veterinary Med. Ass.Google Scholar
  411. Richardson, K. C.: (a) Some structural features of the mammary tissues. Brit, med. Bull. 5, 123–129 (1947).Google Scholar
  412. Richardson, K. C.: (b) Contractile tissues in the mammary gland with special reference to myoepithelium in the goat. Proc. roy. Soc. B 136, 30–45 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. Richardson, K. C.: (c) Measurement of the total area of secretory epithelium with lactatin mammary gland of the goat. J. Endocr. 9, 170–184 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. Richardson, K. C.: (d) Mammary tumors and mammary gland development in normal and oestrogen-treated F 1 hybrids of strains C3 H/J and R Ill/An mice. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 36, 1167–1187 (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. Richardson, K. C.: (e) The acinar pattern in the mammary glandes of virgin mice at different ages. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 38, 305–315 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. Riddle, O.: Prolactin invertebrate function and organization. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 31, 1039–1110 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. Riddle, O.: The preparation, identification and assay of prolactin — a hormone of the anterior pituitary. Amer. J. Physiol. 105, 191–216 (1933).Google Scholar
  418. Riddle, O., Bates, R. W., Dykshorn, S. W.: A new hormone of the anterior pituitary. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 29, 1211–1212 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. Riddle, O., Braucher, P. F.: Studies on the physiology of reproduction in birds. XXX. Control of the special secretion of the crop-gland in pigeons by an anterior pituitary hormone. Amer. J. Physiol. 97, 617–625 (1931).Google Scholar
  420. Riedel, G.: Die Entwicklung und Entartung des elastischen Gewebes in der senilen Mamma. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 256, 242–267 (1925).Google Scholar
  421. Rosen, S.W., Gahres, E. E.: Nonpuerperal galactorrhoea and the contraceptive pill. J. Obstet. Gynec. 29, 730–731 (1967).Google Scholar
  422. Rosenburg, A.: Über menstruelle, durch das Corpus luteum bedingte Mamma-veränderungen. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 27, 466–506 (1922).Google Scholar
  423. Ross, R., Klebanoff, S.: Fine structural changes in uterine smooth muscle and fibroblasts in response to estrogen. J. Cell Biol. 32, 155–167 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. Saameli, K.: Untersuchungen über den Blutspiegel und die Abbaugeschwindigkeit von Oxytocin. Gynaecologia (Basel) 152, 329–332 (1961).Google Scholar
  425. Salter, J., Best, C. H.: Insulin as a growth hormón. Brit. med. J. 1953 II, 353–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  426. Sandritter, W., Federlin, K., Pfeiffer, E. F.: Quantitativehistochemicalstudies on islet cells. In: The structure and metabolismen of the pancreatic islets. Proc. 3rd. Internat. Symp. Stockholm, 1963. Oxford-London-Edinburgh-New York-Paris-Frankfurt: Pergamon Press 1964.Google Scholar
  427. Schachner, S. H.: Galactorrhoea subsequent to contraceptive hormones. New Engl. Med. J. 275, 1138–1141 (1966).Google Scholar
  428. Schäfer, A., Bässler, R.: Vergleichende elektronenoptische Untersuchungen am Drüsenepithel und am sog. lobulären Carcinom der Mamma. Virchows Arch. Abt. A Path. Anat. 346, 269–286 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. Schaefer, H. E., Fischer, R.: Östrogenbedingte Induktion alkalischer Phosphatase in Fibroblasten des subkutanen Bindegewebes der Maus. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 57, 261–273 (1968).Google Scholar
  430. Schairer, E.: Kernmessungen und Chromosomenzählungen an menschlichen Geschwülsten. Z. Krebsforsch. 43, 1–38 (1936).Google Scholar
  431. Schaltenbrand, G.: Die Nervenkrankheiten. Stuttgart: Thieme 1951.Google Scholar
  432. Scharf, G., Lyons, W. R.: Effects of estrone and progesterone on male rabbit mammary glands. II. Varying doses of estrone. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 48, 86–89 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. Schimmelbusch, C.: Das Cystadenom der Mamma. Arch. klin. Chir. 44, 117–134 (1892).Google Scholar
  434. Schipp, R.: Der Feinbau filamentärer Strukturen im Endothel peripherer Lymphgefäße. Acta anat. (Basel) 71, 341–351 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. Schmidt, Hugo: Über normale Hyperthelie menschlicher Embryonen und über die erste Anlage der menschlichen Milchdrüsen überhaupt. Schwalbes morphol. Arb. 7, 157–199 (1897).Google Scholar
  436. Schmitt, Heinrich: Über die Entwicklung der Milchdrüse und die Hyperthelie menschlicher Embryonen. Schwalbes morphol. Arb. 8, 236–303 (1898).Google Scholar
  437. Schnurbusch, F.: Untersuchungen über die Morphologie der männlichen Brustdrüse während des Lebensablaufes als Grundlage für ein Studium der Gynäko-mastie. Frankfurt. Z. Path. 62, 402–418 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. Schriever, D.: Histochemische Untersuchungen am Bindegewebe der Mamma in physiologischen Funktionsphasen. Inaug.-Diss. Mainz, 1968.Google Scholar
  439. Schultz, A.: Pathologische Anatomie der Brustdrüse. In: Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie von O. Lubarsch und F. Henke, Weibliche Geschlechtsorgane, 7. Bd., 2. Teil. Berlin: Springer 1933.Google Scholar
  440. Schulze, G.: Histochemische Untersuchungen am Bindegewebe der hormonal stimulierten Mamma. Inaug.-Diss. Mainz, 1968.Google Scholar
  441. Segal, S. J., Scher, W.: Estrogenes, nuclei acids and protein synthesis in uterine metabolism. In: R. M. Wynn, Cellular biology of the uterus, p. 114–150. Amsterdam: North Holland publ. 1967.Google Scholar
  442. Seifert, G.: Über Gewebsreaktionen der menschlichen Brustdrüse bei Leukämien. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 322, 336–357 (1952).Google Scholar
  443. Selye, H.: On the nervous control of lactation. Amer. J. Physiol. 107, 535–538 (1934).Google Scholar
  444. Selye, H.: Activity of progesterone in spayed female not pretreated with estrin. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 43, 343–344 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  445. Selye, H.: (a) Stress and lactation. Rev. canad. Biol. 13, 377–384 (1954).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. Selye, H.: (b) The effect of Cortisol upon the mammary glands. Acta endocr. (Kbh.) 17, 394–401 (1954).Google Scholar
  447. Selye, H., Browne, J. S. L., Collip, J. B.: The effect of large doses of progesterone in the female rat. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 34, 472–474 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. Selye, H., McEuen, C. S., Collip, J. B.: Effect of testosterone on mammary gland. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 34, 201–203 (1936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  449. Semb, C.: Fibroadenomatosis cystica mammae. Acta chir. scand. 64, Suppl. X, 1–483 (1928).Google Scholar
  450. Short, R. H. D.: Alveolar epithelium in relation to growth of the lung. Phil. Trans. B 235, 35–86 (1951).Google Scholar
  451. Silver, I. A.: Myoepithelial cells in the mammary and parotid glands. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 125, 8–9 (1954).Google Scholar
  452. Smith, Th. C.: The action of relaxin on mammary gland growth in the rat. Endocrinology 54, 59–70 (1954).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  453. Smith, Th. C.: The effect of estrogen and progesterone on mammary gland growth in the rat. Endocrinology 57, 33–43 (1955).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. Smith, Th. C.: Action of estrogen and progesterone on mammary nucleic acids and enzymes in rats. Endocrinology 65, 51–55 (1959).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. Smith, Th. C.: Braverman, L. B.: The action of desoxycorticosterone acetate on the mammary gland of the immature ovariectomized rat. Endocrinology 52, 311–317 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. Smith, Th C., Richterich, B.: Synergism of estrogen and progesterone on mammary growth in guinea pigs. Endocrinology 63, 89–98 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  457. Smithcors, J. F., Leonard, S. L.: Limited effects of certain steroid hormones on mammary glands of hypophysectomized rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 54, 109–111 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. Soemarwoto, J. N., Bern, H. A.: The effect of hormones on the vascular pattern of the mouse mammary gland. Amer. J. Anat. 103, 403–435 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. Speert, H.: The normal and experimental development of the mammary gland of the rhesus monkey with some pathological correlations. Contr. Embryol. Carneg. Inst. 32, 9–65 (1948).Google Scholar
  460. Spellacy, W. N., Carlson, K. L., Schade, S. L.: Human growth hormone studies in patients with galactorrhea (Ahumada-del-Castillo-Syndrome). Amer. J. Obstet. Gynec. 100, 84–89 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. Spuler, A.: Abriß der Entwicklungsgeschichte der Milchdrüse. In: Handbuch der Gynäkologie, hrsg. von W. Stoeckel, Bd. 1, S. 490–510. Berlin: Bergmann 1930.Google Scholar
  462. Stein, O., Stein, Y.: Formation of milk glycerides in lactating mice studied by electronmicroscopic autoradiography. Israel J. med. Sci. 2, 773–778 (1966).Google Scholar
  463. Steinbeck, H.: Die Wirkung der verschiedenen Gestagene auf Morphologie und Funktion der Milchdrüse. In: Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie, hrsg. von O. Eichler, A. Farah, H. Herken und A. D. Welch, Bd. 22/2, S. 341–425. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1969.Google Scholar
  464. Stöcker, E.: (a) Autoradiographische Untersuchungen zur Deutung der funktionellen Kernschwellung am exokrinen Pankreas. Z. Zellforsch. 57, 47–62 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  465. Stöcker, E.: (b) Autoradiographische Untersuchungen mit 12 H3 und 5 C14 markierten Aminosäuren zur Größe des nukleolären und zytoplasmatischen Eiweißstoffwechsels bei verschiedenen Zellarten von Maus und Ratte. Z. Zellforsch. 70, 419–448 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. Stricker, P.: Recherches expérimentales sur les fonctions du lobe antérieur de l’hypophyse: influence des extraits du lobe antérieur sur l’appareil génital de la lapine et sur la montée laiteuse. Presse méd. 37, 1268–1271 (1929).Google Scholar
  467. Stricker, P., Grueter, F.: Action du lobe antérieur de hypophyse sur la montée laiteuse. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 99, 1978–1980 (1928).Google Scholar
  468. Suchenwirth, R., Bues, F.: Galaktorrhoe als Leitsymptom bei Hypophysenadenomen. Endokrinologie 41, 66–75 (1961).Google Scholar
  469. Suetina, J. A., Chentsov, S., Chentsov, Y., Smirnova, J. O., Samoilov, W. J.: Action mechanism of estrogens and progesteron on the mammary glands. Arh. Patol. (Moskva) 28, 16–22 (1966).Google Scholar
  470. Sykes, J. F.: Hormonal development of mammary tissue in dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 34, 1174–1179 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. Sykes, J. F., Wrenn, T. R.: Hormonal development of the mammary gland of dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 33, 194–204 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. Sylven, B.: Über die Elektivität und Fehlerquellen der Schleimfärbung mit Muci-carmin im Vergleich mit metachromatischer Färbung. Virchows Arch. path. Anat. 303, 280–394 (1938).Google Scholar
  473. Takahashi, N.: Electron microscopic studies on the ectodermal secretory glands in man. The fine structure of the apocrine sweat glands with special reference to the myoepithelium. Bull. Tokyo med. dent. Univ. 4, 259–269 (1957).Google Scholar
  474. Takahashi, N.: Electron microscopic studies on the extodermal secretory glands in man. II. The fine structures of the myoepithelium in the human mammary and salivary glands. Bull. Tokyo med. dent. Univ. 5, 177–192 (1958).Google Scholar
  475. Talwalker, P. K.: Mammary lobulo-alveolar growth in adreno-ovariectomized rats following transplantation of “mammotropic” pituitary tumor. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 117, 121–124 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  476. Talwalker, P. K., Meites, J.: Mammary lobulo-alveolar growth induced by anterior pituitary hormones in adreno-ovariectomized and adreno-ovariectomized-hypophysecto-mized rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 107, 880–883 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. Talwalker, P. K., Nicoll, C.S., Meites, J.: Induction of mammary secretion in pregnant rats and rabbits by hydrocortisone acetate. Endocrinology, 69, 802–808 (1961).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. Tamarin, A.: Myoepithelium of rat submaxillary gland. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 16, 320–338 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. Tandler, B.: Ultrastructure of the human submaxillary gland. Z. Zeilforsch. 68, 852–863 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. Taylor, H. C.: (a) The relation of chronic mastitis to certain hormones of the ovary and pituitary and to coincident gynecological lesions. Surg. Gynec. Ostet. 62, 129–148 (1936).Google Scholar
  481. Taylor, H. C.: (b) The relation of chronic mastitis to certain hormones of the ovary and pituitary and to coincident gynecological lesions. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 62, 562–584 (1936).Google Scholar
  482. Taylor, H. C., Waltman, C.A.: Hyperplasias of the mammary gland in the human being and in the mouse. Arch. Surg. 40, 733–820 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. Terzakis, I. A.: The ultrastructure of monkey eccrine sweat glands. Z. Zellforsch. 64, 493–509 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. Thölen, H.: Das embryonale und postnatale Verhalten der männlichen Brustdrüse beim Menschen. I. Das Mammaorgan beim Embryo und Säugling. Acta anat. (Basel) 8, 201–235 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. Thoenes, W.: Mikromorphologie des Nephron nach temporärer Ischämie. Stuttgart: Thieme 1964.Google Scholar
  486. Traurig, H.: (a) Cell proliferation in the mammary gland during late pregnancy and lactation. Anat. Rec. 157, 489–504 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. Traurig, H.: (b) A radioautographic study of all proliferation in the mammary gland of the pregnant mouse. Anat. Rec. 159, 239–248 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  488. Trentin, J. J.: The experimental development of the mammary gland with special reference to the interaction of the pituitary and ovarian hormones. Mo. agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull Nr. 418 (1948).Google Scholar
  489. Trentin, J. J., Turner, C. W.: Effect of adrenalectomy on the mammary gland of the castrated and estrogen treated male rat. Endocrinology 41, 127–134 (1947).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  490. Treves, N.: Gynecomastia. The origins of mammary swelling in the male: an analysis of 406 patients with breast hypertrophy, 525 with testicular tumors and 13 with adrenal neoplasma. Cancer (Philad.) 11, 1082–1102 (1958).Google Scholar
  491. Tucker, H. A.: (b) Nuclei acid content of mammary glands of lactating rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 112, 409–412 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  492. Tucker, H. A.: (d) Nuclei acid of rat mammary glands during post-lactational involution. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 112, 1002–1004 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  493. Tucker, H. A., Reece, R. P.: (a) Nuclei acid content of mammary glands of pregnant rats. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 112, 370–372 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. Tucker, H. A., Reece, R. P.: (c) Nuclei acid content of mammary gland of rats lactating 41 and 61 days. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N.Y.) 112, 688–690 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. Turner, C. W.: The mammary gland. I. The anatomy of the udder of cattle and domestic animals. Columbia: Lucas Brothers 1952.Google Scholar
  496. Turner, C. W., Gomez, E. T.: The experimental development of the mammary gland. I. The male and female albino mouse. II. The male and female guinea pig. Mo. agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. Nr. 206 (1934).Google Scholar
  497. Turner, C. W., Yamamoto, H., Ruppert, H. L.: The experimental induction of growth of the cow’s udder and the initiation of milk secretion. J. Dairy Sci. 39, 1717–1729 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. Urban, J. A., Adair, F. E.: Sklerosing adenosis. Cancer (Philad.) 2, 625–634 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. Verley, J. M., Hollmann, K. H.: Synthese et réabsorption des proteines dans la glande mammaire en stase étude autoradiographique au microscope électronique. Z. Zellforsch. 75, 605–610 (1966).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  500. Verne, J.: État actuell de la cytochimie de la glande mammaire. Cell. int. Cent. nat. Rech. sci. 32, 59–66 (1951).Google Scholar
  501. Veronesi, U., Candiani, M. A.: La glandola mammaria muliebre nella senescenca. Biol. lat. (Milano) 8, 7–100 (1955).Google Scholar
  502. Vigneaud, P. G. du, Ressler, C., Swan, J. M., Roberts, C. W., Katsoyamis, P. G., Gordon, S.: The synthesis of an octapeptide amide with the hormonal activity of oxytocin. J. Amer. chem. Soc. 75, 4879–4880 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. Vigneaud, V. du, Lawler, H. C., Popenoe, E. A.: Enzymatic clearage of glycin- amide from vasopressin and a proposed structure for this pressor-antidiuretic hormone of the posterior pituitary. J. Amer. chem. Soc. 75, 4880–4881 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. Villani, G., Zanella, E.: II tissue elastico nei tumori e in altre forme patologiche della mammella. Arch. De Vecchi Anat. pat. 17, 537–552 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. Vitry, G.: Modification histochimique de la substance fondamentale du tissu conjonctif, de la tetine du cobaye sans l’action de diverse hormones sexuelles. C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 147, 124–126 (1953).Google Scholar
  506. Vogler, E.: Über das basilare Helle-Zellen-Organ der menschlichen Brustdrüse. Klin. Med. (Wien) 2, 159–167 (1947).Google Scholar
  507. Volkmann, H.: Zahlen und Daten zur Funktion der Milchdrüsen. Zusammenstellung und Tabelle (Beilage). Med. Klin. 39 (1951).Google Scholar
  508. Voss, H. E.: Die hormonale Regelung der Laktation. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 83, 288–291, 328–331 (1958).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. Wagenen, G. van, Folley, S. J.: Effect of androgens on mammary gland of female rhesus monkey. J. Endocr. 1, 367–372 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. Wattenwyl, H. v.: Tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen über die Wirkung langdauernder Follikelhormonapplikation und die hormonale Tumorentstehung. Inaug.-Diss. Basel, 1944.Google Scholar
  511. Watzka, M.: Zellen mit spezialen Funktionen. In: Handbuch der allgemeinen Pathologie, hrsgg. von F. Büchner, E. Letterer und R. Roulet, Bd. II/1. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1955.Google Scholar
  512. Waugh, D., Hoeven, E. van der: Fine structure of the human adult female breast. Lab. Invest. 11, 220–228 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. Weber, A. T., Kitchell, R. L., Sautter, III.: Mammary gland studies. I. The identity and characterization of the smallert lobule unit in the udder of the dairy cow. Amer. J. vet. Res. 16, 255–263 (1955).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. Weber, W.: Zur Histologie und Cytologie der Kröpfmilchbildung der Taube. Z. Zellforsch. 56, 247–276 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. Weichert, C. K., Boyd, R. W., Cohen, R. S.: A study of certain endocrine effects in the mammary glands of female rats. Anat. Rec. 61, 21 (1934).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  516. Wellings, S. R., Nandi, S.: Electron microscopy of induced secretion in mammary epithelial cells of hypophysectomized-ovarectomized-adrenalectomized BALB/c Crgl mice. J. nat. Cancer Inst. 40, 1245–1258 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. Wellings, S. R., Philp, J. R.: The function of the Golgi apparatus in lactating cells of the BALB/c Crgl mouse. An electron microscopic and autoradiographic study. Z. Zellforsch. 61, 871–882 (1964).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  518. Wenner, R.: Physiologische und pathologische Lactation. Arch. Gynäk. 204, 171–206 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  519. Werner, K. H.: Über die Wirkung des Follikelhormons auf die Milchdrüsen kastrierter Ratten. Diss. Leipzig 1938.Google Scholar
  520. Wiider, J. A., Marshall, J. R., Ross, G. T.: Familial galactorrhoea in three sisters with oligo-ovulation. J. Amer. med. Ass. 209, 669–671 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  521. Williams-Ashman, H. G.: Androgenic control of nucleic acid and protein synthesis in male accenory genital organs. J. cell. comp. Physiol. 66, 111–124 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. Wyk, J. J. v., Grumbach, M. M.: Syndrom of precocious menstruation and galactorrhea in juvenil hypothyreoidism: an example of hormonal overlap in pituitary feedback. J. Pediat. 57, 416–435 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. Yamamoto, H., Turner, C. W.: Experimental mammary gland growth in rabbits by estrogen and progesterone. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.) 92, 130–132 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. Zaks, M. G.: The motor apparatus of the mammary gland, ed. by A. T. Cowie. Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd 1962.Google Scholar
  525. Zarzycki, L., Peryt, A., Klubinska, B., Hjac, T., Zak, K.: Histochemische Untersuchungen über den Involutionsmechanismus der Milchdrüse. Histochemie 18, 314–320 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. Zondek, B., Bromberg, Y. M., Rozin, S.: An anterior pituitary hyperhormotrophic syndrome. J. Obstet. Gynaec. Brit. Emp. 58, 525–537 (1951).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1970

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland Bässler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Pathological AnatomyJohannes Gutenberg UniversityMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations