Agricultural Development Policy in the first Year of Independence

  • Hans Ruthenberg
Part of the Afrika-Studien book series (AFRIKA-STUDIEN, volume 2)


In the first months of independence it became obvious that the realization of the plan’s basic idea would be difficult. The question is whether it is wise to pursue a rapid expansion of the development services of a government at a time when its personnel is undergoing changes due to a different political situation. The attitude of rural people had been correctly assessed. Independence is echoed even in the most isolated villages. Long-cherished hopes are suddenly being fulfilled. Blohm quotes the sayings of the Nyamwezi from Germans times:

“One day something is going to happen, something mighty, which will overcome all Europeans of our time. No white man will be able to do anything against it. That is the belief of the oldest of the Nyamwezi.” (Part II, p. 193.)


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  1. 1.
    KAMBONA, The Minister of the Interior has stated: We want to awaken those who slept during colonial rule.Google Scholar
  2. 1.
    ANTWEILER, A.: Entwicklungshilfe, Versuch einer Theorie. Trier 1962.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    See also: SENCHOR, L. S.: Les Données du Problème. Conference at Dakar, December 3rd to 8th, 1962. — BIOBAKU, S. O.: Notes for the Report of the Nigerian Delegation, ditto. — KANOUTE: Socialisme africain, expression de l’humanisme africain. In Afrique Nouvelle, Dakar 1962, Nr. 799. — MBOYA, T.: African Socialism. In Transition, Kampala, March 1963. Nr. 8.Google Scholar
  4. 1.
    It is difficult to determine to what extent such committees are appointed or elected. In Tanganyika it is the custom for participants to sit under a tree and to discuss until they have reached agreement (J. K. NYERERE, in: Transition, Vol. I, No. 2, p. 9 ).Google Scholar
  5. 1.
    Achievements of the “self-help schemes” as published in the Newsweek of December 24, 1962 and Tanganyika Standard up to March 1963.Google Scholar
  6. 1.
    In 1958 GUILLEBAUD estimated that the work done by a farm worker in Europe was approximately equal to that of 5 workers on sisal farms in Tanganyika. The performance of sisal workers in Java is said to have been two to three times as high as in Tanganyika.Google Scholar
  7. 2.
    As to Dar-es-Salaam, in 1962 the number of unemployed was estimated at 25,000 and that of half unemployed at 12,000. The number of Africans employed in agriculture fell from 220,199 in July of 1959 to 179,400 in July of 1961.Google Scholar
  8. 1.
    Colonial rule left a most dangerous heritage as to salaries. Government officials are paid according to what was paid to British personnel. There have been reductions, but certainly not enough. Thus college graduates receive starting salaries, which are approx. three times higher than in India and two times higher than in Japan, a country of considerable wealth nowadays. Sooner or later Tanganyika will be compelled to reduce salaries drastically if internal money is to be made available for economic development.Google Scholar
  9. 1.
    According to Newsweek, December 24th, 1962, one million Tanganyikans received US food. The number of registered adults in May 1963 was 45, 000.Google Scholar
  10. 2.
    A report from Same District, Tanga Region says about certain areas: “People have stopped farming and live on fishing and US maize. There is no doubt that where US maize has been distributed, less land is being cultivated. In some locations this is creating the conditions for another famine.Google Scholar
  11. 1.
    The same is true for production figures. Success or failure of efforts to increase output cannot be judged by the data from one or two years. 1961 brought a poor crop after 6 good years. Low output in 1961 was definitely not due to a reduction in British activitities because of the approach of independence. 1963 is likely to bring a bumper crop. It is possible that political efforts to increase acreage have had a share in this. The weather, however, was extremely favourable. Even fields planted late showed good growth. There are other factors which have to be taken into account. Poor crops in 1961 and 1962 led to high prices. There was a substantial price incentive for farmers. In addition, certain speculations favoured increased cultivation. It is very likely that two poor years are followed by a good one. Consequently farmers are said to consider it worthwhile to put more effort than usual into cultivation.Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1964

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  • Hans Ruthenberg

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