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Primitive Roots

  • Tom M. Apostol
Part of the Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics book series (UTM)

Abstract

Let a and m be relatively prime integers, with m ≥ 1, and consider all the positive powers of a :
$$a,{a^2},{a^3},...$$
We know, from the Euler-Fermat theorem, be an earlier pthat aφ(m) ≡ 1 (mod m). However, there may ower a f such that a f ≡ 1 (mod m). We are interested in the smallest positive f with this property.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom M. Apostol
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MathematicsCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

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