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Zusammenfassung

Die Sterine sind hochmolekulare, gut kristallisierte Alkohole mit 27 bis 31 Kohlenstoffatomen. Ihren Namen leitet diese Verbindungsklasse von dem gegen Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts aus Gallensteinen isolierten Cholesterin ab (χολή Galle, στέαϱ Fett1). Ein pflanzliches Sterin scheint erstmals von Husemann beschrieben worden zu sein, der indessen die Verwandschaft des „Hydrocarotins“ mit Cholesterin nicht erkannte. 1862 isolierte dann Beneke aus Erbsen eine Substanz, die er für Cholesterin hielt, jedoch zeigte später Hesse, daß derartige in Pflanzen vorkommende Verbindungen dem Cholesterin zwar sehr nahe stehen, aber mit ihm nicht identisch sind. Es ergab sich somit eine Einteilung in tierische (Zoosterine) und pflanzliche Sterine (Phytosterine); von diesen wurden noch die Algensterine und Pilzsterine (Mycosterine) abgetrennt. Die Grenzen zwischen den einzelnen Gruppen sind jedoch nicht sehr streng. Zwar ist das Vorkommen des Cholesterins selber ausschließlich auf Wirbeltiere beschränkt — ein hydroxyliertes Cholesterin konnte allerdings kürzlich in höheren Pflanzen aufgefunden werden (S. 138) —, aber manche Pflanzensterine finden sich auch bei niederen Tieren.

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