Lipid Productivity of a High Andean Lake

  • Bernd R. T. Simoneit
  • H. I. Halpern
  • B. M. Didyk

Abstract

Various high altitude lakes are found on the inter-Andean plateau of Antofagasta province, Chile. Laguna Lejia is located in a caldera (23°30’S, 67°42’W) at an altitude of 4180 m. Its surface is approximately 1 × 2 km and the water depth is unknown. The water level appears to be maintained by active springs. A delicate algal mat (ca 0.5–1.0 cm thick, Fig. la) is found in the shallow water areas, followed by black anoxic mud (ca 1–5 cm) and below that, coarse volcanic rubble. Isolated flamingoes feed on the algal mats, and insects are common at the shore. The caldera is sparsely vegetated by coiron grass (closely related to Stipa Venusta Phil.), (areas on the distant mountain slopes, Fig. lb).. The afternoon westerly breezes generate a white foam on the lake surface, which accumulates on the eastern shore (Fig. lb). This shore is covered by about 50 cm of dried foam and detritus.

Keywords

Surfactant Hydrocarbon Shale Ketone Microbial Degradation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aasen, A.J., Hofstetter, H.H., Iyengar, B.T.R., and Holman, R.T., 1971. Identification and analysis of wax esters by mass spectrometry. Lipids, 6: 502–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bird, C.W., Lynch, J.M., Pirt, F.J., Reid, W.W., Brooks, C.J.W., and Middleditch, B.S., 1971. Steroids and squalene in Methylococcus capsulatus grown on methane. Nature, 230: 473–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boon, J.J., and deLeeuw, J.W., 1979. The analysis of wax esters, very long mid-chain ketones and sterol ethers isolated from Walvis Bay diatomaceous ooze. Mar. Chem., 7: 117–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brooks, P.W., 1974. Isoprenoids and Other Lipids in Recent Sediments. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bristol, England, 395 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Brooks, P.W., Eglinton, G., Gaskell, S.J., McHugh, D.J., Maxwell, J.R., and Philp, R.P., 1973. Lipids of Recent sediment, Part II. Branched and cyclic alkanes and alkanoic acids of some temperate lacustrine and sub-tropical lagoonal/tidal-flat sediments. Chem. Geol., 20: 189–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cardoso, J., Brooks, P.W., Eglinton, G., Goodfellow, R., Maxwell, J.R., and Philp, R.P., 1976. Lipids of recently-deposited algal mats at Laguna Mormona, Baja California. In: J.O. Nriagu (Ed.), Environmental Biogeochemistry, Ann Arbor Science, MI, pp. 149–174.Google Scholar
  7. Dastillung, M., and Albrecht, P., 1977. A2-Sterénes as diagenetic intermediates in sediments. Nature, 269: 678–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. deLeeuw, J.W., Simoneit, B.R.T., Boon, J.J., Rijpstra, W.I.C., deLange, F., Van den Leeden, J.C.W., Correia, V.A., Burlingame, A.L., and Schenck, P.A., 1977. Phytol-derived compounds in the geosphere. In: R. Campos and J. Goni (Eds), Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1975. ENADIMSA, Madrid, pp. 61–79.Google Scholar
  9. Didyk, B.M., Simoneit, B.R.T., Brassell, S.C., and Eglinton, G., 1978. Organic geochemical indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions of sedimentation. Nature, 272: 216–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gerchakov, S.M., and Hatcher, P.G., 1972. Improved technique for analysis of carbohydrates in sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr., 17: 938–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Han, J., McCarthy, E.D., Calvin, M., and Benn, M.D., 1968. Hydrocarbon constituents of the blue-green algae Nostoc muscorum, Anacystis nidulans, Phormidium luridum and Chlorogloea fritschii. J. Chem. Soc.,(C): 2785–2791.Google Scholar
  12. Hatcher, P.G., Simoneit, B.R.T., and Gerchakov, S.M., 1977. The organic geochemistry of a Recent Sapropelic environment: Mangrove Lake, Bermuda. In: R. Campos and J. Goni (Eds), Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1975., ENADIMSA, Madrid: pp. 469–484.Google Scholar
  13. Jamieson, G.R., and Reid, E.H., 1972. The component fatty acids of some marine algal lipids. Phytochem., 11: 1423–1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson, R.W., and Calder, J.A., 1973. Early diagenesis of fatty acids and hydrocarbons in a salt marsh environment. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 37: 1943–1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jones, J.G., 1969. Studies on lipids of soil micro-organisms with particular reference to hydrocarbons. J. Gen. Microbiol., 59: 145–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kaneda, T., 1967. Fatty acids in the genus Bacillus I. Iso- and anteiso-fatty acids as characteristic constituents of lipids in 10 species. J. Bacteriol., 93: 894–903.Google Scholar
  17. Kaplan, I.R., Smith, J.W., and Ruth, E., 1970. Carbon and sulfur concentration and isotopic composition in Apollo 11 lunar samples. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 1, Vol.2, pp. 1317–1329.Google Scholar
  18. Kaplan, I.R., 1975. Stable isotopes as a guide to biogeochemical processes. Proc. R. Soc., B189: 183–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kates, M., 1964. Bacterial lipids. Adv. Lipid Research, 2: 17–20.Google Scholar
  20. Klenk, E., Knipprath, W., Eberhagen, D., and Koof, H.P., 1963. Über die ungesättigten Fettsäuren der Fettstoffe von SU wasser-und Meeresalgen. Z. Physiol. Chem., 334: 44–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ourisson, G., Albrecht, P., and Rohmer, M., 1979. The hopanoids, paleo-chemistry and biochemistry of a group of natural products. Pure Appl. Chem., 51: 709–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pearson, F.J., and Coplen, T.B., 1978. Stable isotope studies of lakes. In: A. Lerman (Ed.), Lakes, Chemistry, Geology and Physics, Springer-Verlag, NY, pp. 325–339.Google Scholar
  23. Philp, R.P., Maxwell, J.R., and Eglinton, G., 1976. Environmental organic geochemistry of aquatic sediments. Sci. Progr., 63: 521–545.Google Scholar
  24. Ahead, M.M., Eglinton, G., Draffan, G.H., and England, P.J., 1971. Conversion of oleic acid to saturated fatty acids in Severn Estuary Sediments. Nature, 232: 327–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rohmer, M., 1975. Triterpenoides de procaryotes. Ph.D. Thesis, Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg, France, 110 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Rubinstein, I., and Albrecht, P., 1975. The occurrence of nuclear methylated steranes in a shale. Chem. Comm., 1975: 957–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rubinstein, I., Sieskind, O., and Albrecht, P., 1975. Rearranged sterenes in a shale: Occurrence and simulated formation. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans., I: 1833–1836.Google Scholar
  28. Scheuer, P.J., 1973. Chemistry of Marine Natural Products. Academic Press, NY, 201 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Simoneit, B.R.T., 1977a. Organic matter in eolian dusts over the Atlantic Ocean. Mar. Chem., 5: 443–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Simoneit, B.R.T., 1977b. Diterpenoid compounds and other lipids in deep-sea sediments and their geochemical significance. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 41: 463–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Simoneit, B.R.T., 1978. The organic chemistry of marine sediments. In: J.P. Riley and R. Chester (Eds.),Chemical Oceanography, 2nd ed. Vol. 7. Academic Press, NY, 233–311.Google Scholar
  32. Simoneit, B.R.T., 1979a. Terrigenous and marine organic markers and their input to marine sediments. In: E.W. Baker (Ed.), Proceedings of Symposium on Organic Geochemistry of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sediments. Science Press, Princeton, in press.Google Scholar
  33. Simoneit, B.R.T., 1979b. Biogenic lipids in eolian particulates collected over the ocean. In: T. Novakov (Ed.), Proceedings of Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, LBL-9037, pp. 233–244.Google Scholar
  34. Smith, B.N., and Epstein, S., 1971. Two categories of 13C/12C ratios for higher plants. Plant Physiol., 47: 380–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stuermer, D.H., Peters, K.E., and Kaplan, I.R., 1978. Source indicators of humic substances and protokerogen: Stable isotope ratios, elemental compositions and electron spin resonance spectra. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 42: 989–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Swain, F.M., 1970. Non-marine Organic Geochemistry, Cambridge University Press, 445 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd R. T. Simoneit
    • 1
  • H. I. Halpern
    • 2
    • 1
  • B. M. Didyk
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Geophysics and Planetary PhysicsUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Space SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Empresa Nacional del PetroleoConconChile

Personalised recommendations