Proliferative Ileitis, Hamster

  • Robert O. Jacoby
Part of the Monographs on Pathology of Laboratory Animals book series (LABORATORY, volume 3)


The characteristic lesion of proliferative ileitis is segmental thickening of the small intestine (Jacoby 1978), particularly the distal ileum (Figs. 366, 367), but a similar lesion occasionally develops in the proximal colon. The lesion is usually well demarcated, and the transition from thickened to normal intestine is especially abrupt at the ileocecal junction. The cecum is often flaccid and filled with fetid liquid contents. Affected hamsters are usually dehydrated, and their perianal skin may be wet or matted with liquid feces, a sign for which the term “wet-tail” is commonly used.


Transmissible ileal hyperplasia hamster enteritis hamster ileitis regional ileitis terminal ileitis enzootic intestinal adenocarcinoma wet-tail 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barthold SW, Jacoby RO, Pucak GJ (1978) An outbreak of cecal mucosal hyperplasia in hamsters. Lab Anim Sci 28:723–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Boothe AD, Cheville NF (1967) The pathology of proliferative ileitis of the golden Syrian hamster. Pathol Vet 4:31–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Clancy RL, Tomkins WA, Muckel TJ, Richardson H, Rawls WE (1975) Isolation and characterization of an aetiological agent in Whipple’s disease. Br Med J 3:568–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cross RF, Smith CK, Parker CF (1973) Terminal ileitis in lambs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 162:564–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Duhamel GE, Wheeldon EB (1982) Intestinal adenomatosis in a foal. Vet Pathol 19:447–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fox JG, Murphy JC, Ackerman JL, Prostak KS, Gallagher CA, Rambow VJ (1982) Proliferative colitis in ferrets. Am J Vet Res 43:858–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Fox JG, Stills HF, Paster BJ, Dewhirst FE, Yan L, Parley L, Prostak K (1993) Antigenic specificity and morphologic characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis, strain SFPD, isolated from hamsters with proliferative ileitis. Lab Anim Sci 43:405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Frisk CS, Wagner JE (1977) Hamster enteritis: a review. Lab Anim 11:79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ganaway JR, Allen AM, Moore TD (1971) Tyzzer’s disease. Am J Pathol 64:717–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Innes JRM, Wilson C, Ross MA (1956) Epizootic Salmonella enteriditis infection causing septic pulmonary phlebo-thrombosis in hamsters. J Infect Dis 98:133–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jacoby RO (1978) Transmissible ileal hyperplasia of hamsters. 1. Histogenesis and immunocytochemistry. Am J Pathol 91:433–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Jacoby RO, Johnson EA (1981) Transmissible ileal hyperplasia. In: Streilein JW, Hart DA, Stein-Streilein J, Ducan WR, Billingham RE (eds) Hamster immune responses in infectious and oncologic diseases. Plenum, New York, pp 267–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jacoby RO, Osbaldiston GW, Jonas AM (1975) Experimental transmission of atypical ileal hyperplasia of hamsters. Lab Anim Sci 25:465–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson EA, Jacoby RO (1978) Transmissible ileal hyperplasia of hamsters. II. Ultrastructure. Am J Pathol 91:451–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Jonas AM, Tomita Y, Wyand S (1965) Enzootic intestinal adenocarcinoma in hamsters. J Am Vet Med Assoc 147:1102–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kent TH, Layton JM, Clifton JA, Schedl HP (1963) Whipple’s disease: light and electron microscopic studies combined with clinical studies suggesting an infective nature. Lab Invest 12:1163–1178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kirsner JB, Shorter RG (1982) Recent developments in nonspecific inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 306:775–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Landsverk T (1981) Intestinal adenomatosis in a blue fox (Alopex lagopus). Vet Pathol 18:275–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lawson GHK, Rowland AC (1974) Intestinal adenomatosis in the pig: a bacteriogical study. Res Vet Sci 17:331–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. McOrist S, Boid R, Lawson GH (1989) Antigenic analysis of Campylobacter species and an intracellular Campylobacter-like organism associated with porcine proliferative enteropathies. Infect Immun 57:957–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Morson BC, Dawson IM (1979) (eds) Gastrointestinal pathology (with a contribution by A. Spriggs), 2nd edn. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 293–312Google Scholar
  22. Rowland AC, Lawson GHK (1974) Intestinal adenomatosis in the pig: immunofluorescent and electron microscopic studies. Res Vet Sci 17:323–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Simpson S, Traube J, Riddell RH (1981) The histologic appearance of dysplasia (precarcinomatous change) in Crohn’s disease of the small and large intestine. Gastroenterology 81:492–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Stills HF (1991) Isolation of an intracellular bacterium from hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with proliferative ileitis and reproduction of the disease with a pure culture. Infect Immun 59:3227–3236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Takeuchi A (1971) Penetration of the intestinal epithelium by various micro-organisms. Curr Top Pathol 54:1–27Google Scholar
  26. Thomlinson JR (1975) “Wet-tail” in the Syrian hamster: a form of colibacillosis. Vet Rec 96:42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Trier JS, Phelps PC, Eidelman S, Rubin CE (1965) Whipple’s disease: light and electron microscope correlation of jejunal mucosal histology with antibiotic treatment and clinical status. Gastroenterology 48:684–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Vandenberghe J, Hoorens J (1980) Campylobacter species and regional enteritis in lambs. Res Vet Sci 29:390–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Wagner JE, Owens DR, Troutt HF (1973) Proliferative ileitis of hamsters: electron microscopy of bacteria in cells. Am J Vet Res 34:249–252PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert O. Jacoby

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations