## Abstract

Many processes in nature, in engineering, in economy, and in other domains are subject to chance, that is, the outcome of the process cannot be predicted. However, it turns out that even for such processes quantitative statements can be made when sufficiently many of them have been observed under equal conditions. For instance, when a coin is tossed, one cannot predict whether heads or tails will appear on top. But if an unbiased coin is tossed a great number of times, one can observe that the ratio of the number of “head” tosses to the total number of tosses differs little from 1/2, and differs from it less and less as the number of tosses increases.

### Keywords

Covariance Black Ball Production Line## Preview

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