A number of recent results in X-ray astronomy, particularly from the Einstein Observatory, are relevant to the acceleration or interaction of high energy particles. X-ray observations of M stars by the Einstein Observatory indicate that their frequent flares include X-ray emission. The correspondence of the flux and duration of M star X-ray flares to those of solar flares can be used to estimate the rate of >200 MeV proton injection into the galaxy. Given the uncertainties, there is no disagreement with the cosmic ray density. Thus, a two stage acceleration process may be viable at least for protons.
Supernova remnants (SNR’s) are characterized by hot, turbulent shock waves with temperatures in excess of 106 K to age 104 years as seen, for example, in the Vela SNR. Thus, SNR’s are good candidates as cosmic ray acceleration sites. X-ray jets due to particle beams are seen to emanate from SS433 and G109.1–1.0, two objects where SNR’s are associated with compact X-ray sources.
Among extragalactic X-ray sources, the radio galaxies, Cen A and M87, have X-ray jet features emanating from their centers. M87 has more extended X-ray lobes in addition. These M87 features are due to synchrotron radiation of very high energy electrons and inverse Compton scattering of moderately high energy electrons against the 2.7K background.
KeywordsMicrowave Explosive Flare Boulder Lewin
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