The Diffusion of Ions from a Phospholipid Model Membrane System

  • A. D. Bangham
  • M. M. Standish
  • J. C. Watkins
  • G. Weissmann


The recognition that biological cells exploit the surface-active properties of lipids to define anatomical membranes has, in recent years, encouraged many workers to develop and study model systems based upon the orientation of lipids at interfaces (Bangham 1963). A considerable advance was made when Mueller, Rudin, TiTien and Wescott (1964) and Haydon (quoted in Taylor 1963), simultaneously and independently reported a technique for the preparation of isolated bimolecular lipid membranes separating two aqueous compartments. Such preparations, although some­what fickle, have enabled a variety of physical parameters to be measured. The technique lends itself pre-eminently to electrical studies of a.c. and d.c. resistances and of capacitance (Thompson 1966, Hanai, Haydon and Taylor 1964). The major criticism of the technique, however, is that the precise composition of the “black” (bimolecular) membrane is in some doubt, since it has not been found possible to spread the membranes in the absence of a relatively large mole fraction of a “filler” hydrocarbon and of water insoluble solvents. Indeed, according to Clements and Wilson (1962), if as little as 1 % of the lipid mass in a membrane contains non-polar compounds, e.g. chloroform, the membrane may be considered to be in a fully anaesthetized state. A further difficulty is encountered when lipid mixtures analogous to those present in biological membranes fail to produce useful membranes.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bangham, A. D., 1963: In: Advances in Lipid Research, ed. by R. Paoietti and D. Kritchevsky, vol. 1, New York: Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Bangham, A. D.,1964: In: Ciba Symposium on Cellular Injury, ed. by A. V. S. de Reuck, London: Churchill.Google Scholar
  3. Bangham, A. D., M. M. Standish, and J. C. Watkins, 1965: J. Mol. Biol. 13, 238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bangham, A. D., M. M. Standish, and G. Weissman, 1965: J. Mol. Biol. 13, 253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brink, F., and J. M. Posternak, 1948: J. Cell. Comp. Physiol, 32, 211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clement s, J. A., and K. M. Wilson, 1962: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., Wash. 48, 1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dervichian, D. G., 1964: In: Progress in Biophysics, Vol. 4, ed. by J. A. V.Google Scholar
  8. But Butler and H. E. Huxley, Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  9. Hanai, T., D. A. Haydon, and J. L. Tay Taylor, 1964: Proc. Roy. Soc. A 281, 377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hanai, T., D. A. Haydon, and J. L. Tay Taylor, 1965: J. gen. Physiol. 48, 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Haydon, D. A., and J. L. TayTaylor, 1963: J. Theoret. Biol. 4, 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lawrence, A. S. C., 1961: In: Surface Activity and Detergency, ed. by K. Durham, di. 7. London: Macmillan Ca., Ltd.Google Scholar
  13. Luzzati, V., and F. Husson, 1966: This conference.Google Scholar
  14. Mueller, P., D. O. Rudin, H. TiTien, and W. C. Westcott, 1964: Recent Progress in Surface Science, ed. by J. F. Daniell i, K. G. Pankhurst and A. C. Riddiford. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  15. Skou, J. C., 1954: Acta pharmacol. et toxieol. 10, 292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Taylor, J. L., 1963: Thesis, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  17. Thompson, T. E., 1966: This conference.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D. Bangham
    • 1
  • M. M. Standish
    • 2
  • J. C. Watkins
    • 3
  • G. Weissmann
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Animal PhysiologyAgricultural Research CouncilBabraham, CambridgeEngland
  2. 2.Visiting Scientist from UnileverBedfordUK
  3. 3.Visiting Scientist from Department of PhysiologyAustralian National Uni­versityCanberra
  4. 4.Visiting Scientist from New York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations