The electronic configuration of atomic oxygen is 1s2 2s2 2p4 and of atomic hydrogen is 1s1. In the water molecule the three nuclei are surrounded by ten electrons; the two 1s electrons of oxygen are confined to the vicinity of the oxygen nucleus, and the other eight electrons are in four approximately sp3 hybrid orbitals which point to the corners of a distorted tetrahedron (Fig. 1).


Natural Water Stability Constant Liquid Water Hydrologic Cycle Equilibrium Concept 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Wsetall
    • 1
  • W. Stumm
    • 1
  1. 1.EAWAGSwiss Federal Institute of TechnologyCH-8600 DübendorfSwitzerland

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