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Abstract

In 1954, Boersch [1] reported that a width of the emission spectrum of an electron beam increases with the beam current or the current density. Those experiments were carried out by a retarding potential analyzer at a beam energy of 30 kV. Later, similar experiments were repeated by several workers with using energy analyzers of various type [2–4]. All those workers agreed that the velocity distribution was broadened so that the effective cathode temperature might be as high as 3 × 104 °K, i.e. at least ten times the real temperature.

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References

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Ichinokawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied PhysicsWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan

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