Lack of appropriate standards frequently forces the analyst to use elemental standards. The usefulness of correction models is limited by the accuracy to which the input parameters are known. Uncertainties in presumably known quantities (mass absorption coefficients, fluorescence yield, mean ionization potentials, etc.) are in many cases the limiting factors. The resulting analytical errors can be minimized by judicious choice of experimental conditions. This paper will give examples involving the corrections for absorption, fluorescence by characteristic lines, and atomic number effects.

Key words

Microprobe analysis error propagation absorption of X-rays fluorescence quantitative analysis atomic number effects. 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Poole, D. M., and P. M. Thomas: The electron microprobe (Mckinley, Heinrich, Wittry, eds.), p. 269. New York: John Wiley and Sons 1966.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quantitative electron probe microanalysis. Nbs Special Publ. 298, 93, 133 (1968).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thomas, P. M.: Aere Report 4593 U. K. At. Energy Authority, 1964.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Heinrich, K. F. J.: Advanc. X-ray Microanalysis, 11, 40 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ku, H. H.: J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. C 70, 263 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Spielberg, N.: Rev. Sci. Instr. 37, 1268 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heinrich, K. F. J., D. Vieth, and H. Yakowitz: Advanc. X-Ray Analysis 9, 208 (1966).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yakowitz, H., and K. F. J. Heinrich• Mikro chim. Acta (1) 182 (1968).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Philibert, J.: X-ray optics and X-ray analysis (Pattee, Cosslett, EngstrÖM, eds.), p. 379. New York: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Duncumb, P., and P. K. Shields: The electron microprobe (Mckinley, Heinrich, Wittry, eds.), p. 284. New York: John Wiley and Sons 1966.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Duncumb, P., et D. A. Melford: Optique microanalyse (Castaing, Deschamps, Philibert, eds.), p. 240. Paris: Hermann 1966.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heinrich, K. F. J., and H. Yakowitz• Mikrochim. Acta 905 (1968).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Castaing, R.: Advanc. Electron. Electron Phys. 13, 317 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Green, M.: Thesis. Cambridge University 1964.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Duncumb, P., and S. J. B. Reed: Quantitative electron probe microanalysis. Nbs, Special Publ. 298, 133 (1968).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Springer, G.: Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh. 9 /10, 304 (1967).MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rian, J. C., et R. Castaing: Optique des rayons X et microanalyse (Castaing, ES- Champs, Philibert, eds.), p. 193. Paris: Her- mann 1966.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Green, M., and V. E. Cosslett: Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 78, 1206 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pockmann, L. T., D. L. Webster, P. Kirkpatrick, and K. Harworth: Phys. Rev. 71, 330 (1947).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Springer, G.: Neues Jahrb., Mineral., Monatsh. (4), 113 (1966).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Heinrich, K. F. J.: Quantitative electron probe microanalysis. Nbs Special Publ. 298, 8 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Caldwell, D. O.: Phys. Rev. 100, 291 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Berger, M.J., and S. M. Seltzer: N. Sc. Sci., des rayons X et D. C., 1964 ), p. 205.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mulvey, T.: Quantitative electron probe micro- analysis, Nbs, Special Publ. 298, 81 (1968).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salter, W. J. M.: Brit. J. Appl. Phys. Ser. 2, 1, 541 (1968).ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. F. J. Heinrich
    • 1
  • H. Yakowitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Materials ResearchNational Bureau of StandardsUSA

Personalised recommendations