Diseases of the Gallbladder

  • Gerbail T. Krishnamurthy
  • Shakuntala Krishnamurthy

Abstract

Gallbladder disease is one of the most common medical problems in the United States and around the world [1]., There are at least 6.3 million men and 16 6 million women who have some form of gallbladder disease in the United States, and gallstones account for most of them [2]., Women are affected 2–3 times as frequently as men., Race, heredity, gender, age, and obesity are some of the important known risk factors for gallstones (Table 9.1.1)., Between the years 60 and 74, the prevalence of gallbladder disease is as high as 25.3% in men and 33.1%% in women (Table 9.1.2), and relatively more common among the Mexican Americans (Table 9.1.3)., The highest rate among the Americans is found in Pima Indians in the state of Arizona [3]., By the teenage years, as many as 10–13% of Pima Indian girls develop lithogenic bile, and by the age 35–44 years, about 71% develop gallstones., Almost 90% of Pima Indian women over the age of 65 years develop gallbladder disease, and the prevalence is much higher than in Pima Indian men., Such a high prevalence has also been reported in Mestizo Hispanics of Chile and a high altitude rural population of Peru [4, 5]., The incidence of gallbladder disease varies from country to country; the Italians [6], British [7], Scottish [8], and Swedish [9] people have a much higher rate than people from other parts of Europe., The relative incidence within a country, however, varies depending upon the ethnic, socioeconomic and genetic factors [10].

Keywords

Obesity Hepatitis Lipase Pancreatitis Peritonitis 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerbail T. Krishnamurthy
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Shakuntala Krishnamurthy
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuality Community HospitalTuality HealthcareHillsboroUSA
  2. 2.Nuclear Medicine ServiceVeterans Affairs Medical CenterPortlandUSA
  3. 3.Nuclear Medicine ResidencyOregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  4. 4.Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  5. 5.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  6. 6.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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