Liver and Spleen Function

  • Gerbail T. Krishnamurthy
  • Shakuntala Krishnamurthy


Liver is the largest organ and carries out the most complex biologic functions in the body. It secretes bile, synthesizes proteins, metabolizes nutrients, hormones, and drugs and detoxifies noxious endogenous and exogenous substrates. To accomplish all of these functions, the liver is located centrally in the body with well designed architecture and is supplied with a generous amount of blood. Secretion of bile is one of many important liver functions. Bile promotes digestion and absorption of essential nutrients and also serves as a vehicle to get rid off biologic waste products from the body. The biliary tree is designed not only for continuous bile secretion but also for periodic bile storage and discharge at the time when food enters the small intestine. Spleen carries out many functions whose importance has been recognized only recently. This chapter will discuss various functions of these two organs.


Bile Salt Organic Anion Gallbladder Wall Bile Secretion Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Fitz JG. Cellular mechanism of bile secretion. In: Zakim D, Boyer TD, eds. Hepatology. A textbook of liver disease. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co. 1996: pp 362–376Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boyer JL, Klatskin G. Canalicular bile flow and bile secretory pressure. Evidence for a non-bile salt dependent fraction in the isolated perfused rat liver. Gastroenterology 1970; 59: 853–859PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brauer RW, Leong SF, Holloway RJ. Mechanism of secretion. Effect of perfusion pressure and temperature on bile flow and bile secretion pressure. Am J Physiology 1954; 177: 103–106Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jones AL, Schmucker DL, Renston RH, Murakami T. The architecture of bile secretion. A morphological perspective of physiology. Dig Dis Sci 1980; 25: 609–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sherlock S, Dooley J. Cholestasis. Diseases of the liver and biliary system, 10th edition, Blackwell Science, Malden, MA. 1997, pp 217–237Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sellinger M, Barrett C, Malle P, Gordon ER, Boyer JL. Cryptic Na+, K+-ATPase activity in the rat liver canalicular plasma membranes: evidence for its basolateral origin. Hepatology 1990; 11: 223–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meier PJ. Molecular mechanisms of hepatic bile salt transport from sinusoidal blood into bile. Am J Physio1269: G801 - G812, 1995Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Trauner M, Meier PJ, Boyer JL. Molecular pathogenesis of cholestasis. N Engl J Med 1998: 339: 1217 1227Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kamimato Y, Gatmaitan Z, Hsu J, Arias IM. The function of Gp 170, the multidrug resistance gene product, in rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles. J Biol Chem 1989; 264: 11693–11698Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goresky CA. Initial distribution and rate of sulfobromophthalein in the liver. Am J Physiology 1964; 207: 13–16Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Donohue TM Jr., Tuma DJ, Sorrell ME Plasma proteins metabolism. In: Zakim D, Boyer TD. Hepatology. A text book of liver disease, 3rd edition. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co., 1996; 130–148Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krishnamurthy GT, Bobba VR, McConnel D, Turner F, Mesgarzadeh M, Kingston E. Quantitative biliary dynamics: Introduction of a new noninvasive scintigraphic technique. J Nucl Med 1983; 24; 217–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vlahcevic ZR, Heuman DM, Hylemon PB. Physiology and pathology of enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. In: Zakin D, Boyer TD (eds.). Hepatology. A textbook of liver disease. 1996. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co. pp 376–417Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wheeler HO. Concentrating function of the gallbladder Am J Med 1971; 51: 588–595Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krishnamurthy S, Krishnamurthy GT. Evolution of nuclear hepatology as a clinical subspeciality. J Nucl Med Technol 1995;23:35S–45S (supplement)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thune A, Scicchitano J, Roberts-Thompson I, Toouli J. Reproducibility of endoscopic sphincter of Oddi manometry. Dig Dis Sci 1991; 36: 1401–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee SK, Kim MH, Seo DW, Yoo BM, Lee MH, Myung SJ, Min YI. Frequency of phasic wave contraction is variable during long-term sphincter of Oddi manometry. Am J Gastroenterol 1996; 91: 2395–2398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fisher RS, Rock E, Malmud LS. Gallbladder emptying response to sham feeding in humans. Gastroenterology 1986; 90: 1854–1857PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ivy AC, Oldberg E. A hormone mechanism of gallbladder contraction and evacuation. Am J Physiology 1928; 86: 599–613Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mutt V. Cholecystokinin: isolation, structure, and function. In: Jerzy Glass GB. ed. Gastrointestinal hormones. New York, Raven Press, 1980, pp 169–221Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bobba VR, Krishnamurthy GT, Kingston E, Turner FE, Brown PH, Langrell K. Gallbladder dynamics induced by a fatty meal in normal subjects and patients with gallstones: Concise communication. J Nucl Med 1984; 25: 21–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bloom SR, Adrian TE, Mitchenere P, et al. Motilin induced gallbladder contraction. A new mechanism. Gastroenterology 1981; 80: 1113Google Scholar
  23. 1.
    Mattsson O. Scintigraphic spleen volume calculation. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 1982; 23: 47 1477Google Scholar
  24. 2.
    Spencer RP, Pearson HA. The spleen as a hematological organ. Semin Nucl Med 1975; 5: 95–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 3.
    Gray SJ, Sterling K. The tagging of red blood cells and plasma proteins with radioactive chromium. J Clin Invest 1950; 29: 818Google Scholar
  26. 4.
    Pollycove M, Tono M. Blood volume. In: Sandler MP, Patton JH, Coleman RE, Gottschalk A, Wackers FJTh, Hopper PB. Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine, 3rd edition, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1996, pp 827–834Google Scholar
  27. 5.
    Crosby WH, Normal functions of the spleen relative to red blood cells. A review. Blood 1959; 14: 399408Google Scholar
  28. 6.
    Pearson HA, Johnston D, Smith KA, Touloukian RJ. The born-again spleen. Return of splenic function after splenectomy for trauma. New Eng J Med 1978; 298: 1389–1392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 7.
    Spencer RP. Spleen imaging. In: Sandler MP, Patton JH, Coleman RE, Gottschalk A, Wackers FJTh, Hopper PB. Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine, 3rd edition, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1996, pp 865–874Google Scholar
  30. 8.
    Hoeper MM, Niedermeyer J, Hoffmeyer F, Flemming P, Fabel H. Pulmonary hypertension after splenectomy? Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 506–509PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 9.
    Leemans R, Manson W, Snijder JAM, Smit JW, Klasen HJ, The TH, Timens W. Immune response capacity after human splenic autotransplantation. Restoration of response to individual pneumococcal vaccine subtypes. Ann Surg 1999; 229: 279–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerbail T. Krishnamurthy
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Shakuntala Krishnamurthy
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuality Community HospitalTuality HealthcareHillsboroUSA
  2. 2.Nuclear Medicine ServiceVeterans Affairs Medical CenterPortlandUSA
  3. 3.Nuclear Medicine ResidencyOregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  4. 4.Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  5. 5.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  6. 6.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations