Pediatric Nuclear Hepatology

  • Gerbail T. Krishnamurthy
  • Shakuntala Krishnamurthy


The liver and biliary system develop from a bilobed (cephalic and caudal) endodermal bud that sprouts along the ventral surface of the distal end of the foregut at its junction with the midgut. The cephalic bud divides into two branches which later form the right and left lobes of the liver. The caudal bud gives rise to the biliary tract and the gallbladder (Fig. 1.1.1, Chap. 1). The biliary tract starts first as a patent tubular structure but turns into a solid core during early intrauterine life due to proliferation of epithelial cells. After recanalization of the solid core by 12–14 weeks, bile secretion begins and flows into the small intestine. Most of the congenital abnormalities of the biliary tract are due to either failure of re-canalization of ducts (biliary atresia) or faulty re-canalization with cystic dilatation of intrahepatic (Caroli’s disease) and extrahepatic ducts (choledochal cyst).


Bile Duct Biliary Atresia Choledochal Cyst Cystic Disease Liver Cyst 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerbail T. Krishnamurthy
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Shakuntala Krishnamurthy
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuality Community HospitalTuality HealthcareHillsboroUSA
  2. 2.Nuclear Medicine ServiceVeterans Affairs Medical CenterPortlandUSA
  3. 3.Nuclear Medicine ResidencyOregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  4. 4.Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  5. 5.University of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  6. 6.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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