The Physical and Psychophysical Basis of Sound Localization

  • Simon Carlile
Part of the Neuroscience Intelligence Unit book series (NIU.LANDES)


Traditionally, the principal cues to a sound’s location are identified as the differences between the sound field at each ear. The obvious fact that we have two ears sampling the sound field under slightly different conditions makes these binaural cues self-evident. A slightly more subtle concept underlying traditional thinking is that the differences between the ears are analyzed on a frequency by frequency basis. This idea has as its basis the notion that the inner ear encodes the sounds in terms of its spectral characteristics as opposed to its time domain characteristics. As a result, complex spectra are thought to be encoded within the nervous system as varying levels of activity across a wide range of auditory channels; each channel corresponding to a different segment of the frequency range. While there is much merit and an enormous amount of data supporting these ideas, they have tended to dominate research efforts to the exclusion of a number of other important features of processing. In contrast to these traditional views, there is a growing body of evidence that:
  1. (i)

    illustrates the important role of information available at each ear alone (monaural cues to sound location);

  2. (ii)

    suggests that processing across frequency is an important feature of those mechanisms analyzing cues to sound location (monaural and binaural spectral cues);

  3. (iii)

    suggests that the time (rather than frequency) domain characteristics of the sound may also play an important role in sound localization processing.



Sound Source Sound Localization Interaural Time Difference Interaural Level Difference Lateral Superior Olive 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Woodworth RS, Schlosberg H. Experimental Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Woodworth RS. Experimental Psychology. New York: Holt, 1938.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Palmer AR, Russsell IJ. Phase-locking in the cochlear nerve of the guinea-pig and its relation to the receptor potential of inner hair-cells. Hear Res 1986; 24: 1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klump RG, Eady HR. Some measurements of interaural time difference thresholds. J Acoust Soc Am 1956; 28: 859–860.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zwislocki J, Feldman RS. Just noticeable differences in dichotic phase. J Acoust Soc Am 1956; 28: 860–864.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Trahiotis C, Robinson DE. Auditory psychophysics. Ann Rev Psychol I 1979; 30: 31–61.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Henning GB. Detectibility of interaural delay in high-frequency complex waveforms. J Acoust Soc Am 1974; 55: 84–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nuetzel JM, Hafter ER. Lateralization of complex waveforms: effects of fine structure, amplitude, and duration. J Acoust Soc Am 1976; 60: 1339–1346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saberi K, Hafter ER. A common neural code for frequency-and amplitude-modulated sounds. Nature 1995; 374: 537–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shaw EAG. The external ear. In: Keidel WD, Neff WD, ed. Handbook of Sensory physiology. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1974: 455–490.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Middlebrooks JC, Makous JC, Green DM. Directional sensitivity of sound-pressure levels in the human ear canal. J Acoust Soc Am 1989; 86: 89–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Searle CL, Braida LD, Cuddy DR et al. Binaural pinna disparity: another auditory localization cue. J Acoust Soc Am 1975; 57: 448–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hartley RVL, Fry TC. The binaural location of pure tones. Physics Rev 1921; 18: 431–42.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nordlund B. Physical factors in angular localization. Acta Otolaryngol 1962; 54: 75–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kuhn GF. Model for the interaural time differences in the horizontal plane. J Acoust Soc Am 1977; 62: 157–167.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Feddersen WE, Sande]. TT, Teas DC et al. Localization of high-frequency tones. J Acoust Soc Am 1957; 29: 988–991.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abbagnaro LA, Bauer BB, Torick EL. Measurements of diffraction and interaural delay of a progressive sound wave caused by the human head. II. J Acoust Soc Am 1975; 58: 693–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roth GL, Kochhar RK, Hind JE. Interaural time differences: Implications regarding the neurophysiology of sound localization. J Acoust Soc Am 1980; 68: 1643–1651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brillouin L. Wave propagation and group velocity. New York: Academic, 1960.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gaunaurd GC, Kuhn GF. Phase-and group-velocities of acoustic waves around a sphere simulating the human head. J Acoust Soc Am 1980; Suppl. 1: 57.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ballantine S. Effect of diffraction around the microphone in sound measurements. Phys Rev 1928; 32: 988–992.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kinsler LE, Frey AR. Fundamentals of acoustics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1962.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shaw EAG. Transformation of sound pressure level from the free field to the eardrum in the horizontal plane. J Acoust Soc Am 1974; 56: 1848–1861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shaw EAG. The acoustics of the external ear. In: Studebaker GA, Hochberg I, ed. Acoustical factors affecting hearing aid performance. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1980: 109–125.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Djupesland G, Zwislocki JJ. Sound pressure distribution in the outer ear. Acta Otolaryng 1973; 75: 350–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kuhn GF. Some effects of microphone location, signal bandwidth, and incident wave field on the hearing aid input signal. In: Studebaker GA, Hochberg I, ed. Acoustical factors affecting hearing aid performance. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1980: 55–80.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pralong D, Carlile S. Measuring the human head-related transfer functions: A novel method for the construction and calibration of a miniature “in-ear” recording system. J Acoust Soc Am 1994; 95: 3435–3444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wightman FL, Kistler DJ, Perkins ME. A new approach to the study of human sound localization. In: Yost WA, Gourevitch G, ed. Directional Hearing. New York: Academic, 1987: 26–48.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wightman FL, Kistler DJ. Headphone simulation of free field listening. I: Stimulus synthesis. J Acoust Soc Am 1989; 85: 858–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hellstrom P, Axelsson A. Miniture microphone probe tube measurements in the external auditory canal. J Acoust Soc Am 1993; 93: 907–919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Carlile S, Pralong D. The location-dependent nature of perceptually salient features of the human head-related transfer function. J Acoust Soc Am 1994; 95: 3445–3459.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Belendiuk K, Butler RD. Monaural location of low-pass noise bands in the horizontal plane. J Acoust Soc Am 1975; 58: 701–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Butler RA, Belendiuk K. Spectral cues utilized in the localization of sound in the median sagittal plane. J Acoust Soc Am 1977; 61: 1264–1269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Flannery R, Butler RA. Spectral cues provided by the pinna for monaural localization in the horizontal plane. Percept and Psychophys 1981; 29: 438–444.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Movchan EV. Participation of the auditory centers of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in echolocational tracking of a moving target. [Russian]. Neirofiziologiya 1984; 16: 737–745.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hebrank J, Wright D. Spectral cues used in the localization of sound sources on the median plane. J Acoust Soc Am 1974; 56: 1829–1834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hammershoi D, Moller H, Sorensen MF. Head-related transfer functions: measurements on 24 human subjects. Presented at Audio Engineering Society. Amsterdam: 1992: 1–30.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Moller H, Sorensen MF, Hammershoi D et al. Head-related transfer functions of human subjects. J Audio Eng Soc 1995; 43: 300–321.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bloom PJ. Determination of monaural sensitivity changes due to the pinna by use of minimum-audible-field measurements in the lateral vertical plane. J Acoust Soc Am 1977; 61: 820–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Blauert J. Spatial Hearing: The psychophysics of human sound localization. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shaw EAG. Earcanal pressure generated by a free sound field. J Acoust Soc Am 1966; 39: 465–470.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mehrgardt S, Mellert V. Transformation characteristics of the external human ear. J Acoust Soc Am 1977; 61: 1567–1576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rabbitt RD, Friedrich MT. Ear canal cross-sectional pressure distributions: mathematical analysis and computation. J Acoust Soc Am 1991; 89: 2379–2390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Carlile S. The auditory periphery of the ferret. I: Directional response properties and the pattern of interaural level differences. J Acoust Soc Am 1990; 88: 2180–2195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Khanna SM, Stinson MR. Specification of the acoustical input to the ear at high frequencies. J Acoust Soc Am 1985; 77: 577–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stinson MR, Khanna SM. Spatial distribution of sound pressure and energy flow in the ear canals of cats. J Acoust Soc Am 1994; 96: 170–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chan JCK, Geisler CD. Estimation of eardrum acoustic pressure and of ear canal length from remote points in the canal. J Acoust Soc Am 1990; 87: 1237–1247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Teranishi R, Shaw EAG. External-ear acoustic models with simple geometry. J Acoust Soc Am 1968; 44: 257–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shaw EAG. The external ear: new knowledge. In: Dalsgaad SC, ed. Earmolds and associated problems-Proceedings of the seventh Danavox Symposium. 1975: 24–50.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Knudsen EI, Konishi M, Pettigrew JD. Receptive fields of auditory neurons in the owl. Science (Washington, DC) 1977; 198: 1278–1280.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Middlebrooks JC, Green DM. Sound localization by human listeners. Annu Rev Psychol 1991; 42: 135–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Middlebrooks JC. Narrow-band sound localization related to external ear acoustics. J Acoust Soc Am 1992; 92: 2607–2624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Price GR. Transformation function of the external ear in response to impulsive stimulation. J Acoust Soc Am 1974; 56: 190–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Carlile S. The auditory periphery of the ferret. II: The spectral transformations of the external ear and their implications for sound localization. J Acoust Soc Am 1990; 88: 2196–2204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Asano F, Suzuki Y, Sone T. Role of spectral cues in median plane localization. J Acoust Soc Am 1990; 88: 159–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kuhn GF, Guernsey RM. Sound pressure distribution about the human head and torso. J Acoust Soc Am 1983; 73: 95–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shaw EAG, Teranishi R. Sound pressure generated in an external-ear replica and real human ears by a nearby point source. J Acoust Soc Am 1968; 44: 240–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shaw EAG. 1979 Rayleigh Medal lecture: the elusive connection. In: Gatehouse RW, ed. Localisation of sound: theory and application. Connecticut: Amphora Press, 1982: 13–27.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shaw EAG. External ear response and sound localization. In: Gatehouse RW, ed. Localisation of sound: theory and application. Connecticut: Amphora Press, 1982: 30–41.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Batteau DW. The role of the pinna in human localization. Proc Royal Soc B 1967; 158: 158–180.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hiranaka Y, Yamasaki H. Envelope representations of pinna impulse responses relating to three-dimensional localization of sound sources. J Acoust Soc Am 1983; 73: 291–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wright D, Hebrank JH, Wilson B. Pinna reflections as cues for localization. J Acoust Soc Am 1974; 56: 957–962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Watkins AJ. Psychoacoustic aspects of synthesized vertical locale cues. J Acoust Soc Am 1978; 63: 1152–1165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Watkins AJ. The monaural perception of azimuth: a synthesis approach. In: Gatehouse RW, ed. Localisation of sound: theory and application. Connecticut: Amphora Press, 1982: 194–206.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rogers CAP. Pinna transformations and sound reproduction. J Audio Eng Soc 1981; 29: 226–234.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Calford MB, Pettigrew JD. Frequency dependence of directional amplification at the cat’s pinna. Hearing Res 1984; 14: 13–19.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Coles RB, Guppy A. Biophysical aspects of directional hearing in the Tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii. J Exp Biol 1986; 121: 371–394.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Carlile S, Pettigrew AG. Directional properties of the auditory periphery in the guinea pig. Hear Res 1987; 31: 111–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Guppy A, Coles RB. Acoustical and neural aspects of hearing in the Australian gleaning bats, Macroderma gigas and Nyctophilus gouldi. J Comp Physiol A 1988; 162: 653–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Coleman PD. Failure to localize the source distance of an unfamiliar sound. J Acoust Soc Am 1962; 34: 345–346.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gardner MB. Distance estimation of 0° or apparent 0°-orientated speech signals in anechoic space. J Acoust Soc Am 1969; 45: 47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Coleman PD. An analysis of cue to auditory depth perception in free space. Psychol Bul 1963; 60: 302–315.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ashmead DH, LeRoy D, Odom RD. Perception of the relative distances of nearby sound sources. Percept and Psychophys 1990; 47: 326–331.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Begault D. Preferred sound intensity increase for sensations of half distance. Peceptual and Motor Skills 1991; 72: 1019–1029.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hirsch HR. Perception of the range of a sound source of unknown strength. J Acoust Soc Am 1968; 43: 373–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Molino J. Perceiving the range of a sound source when the direction is known. J Acoust Soc Am 1973; 53: 1301–1304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Holt RE, Thurlow WR. Subject orientation and judgement of distance of a sound source. J Acoust Soc Am 1969; 46: 1584–1585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mershon DH, Bowers JN. Absolute and relative cues for the auditory perception of egocentric distance. Perception 1979; 8: 311–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ingard U. A review of the influence of meteorological conditions on sound propagation. J Acoust Soc Am 1953; 25: 405–411.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Butler RA, Levy ET, Neff WD. Apparent distance of sound recorded in echoic and anechoic chambers. J Exp Psychol: Hum Percept Perform 1980; 6: 745–50.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Little AD, Mershon DH, Cox PH. Spectral content as a cue to perceived auditory distance. Perception 1992; 21: 405–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bekesy GV. Experiments in hearing. USA: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1960.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mershon DH, King LE. Intensity and reverberation as factors in the auditory perception of egocentric distance. Percept Psychophys 1975; 18: 409–415.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mershon DH, Ballenger WL, Little AD et al. Effects of room reflectance and background noise on perceived auditory distance. Perception 1989; 18: 403–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Saberi K, Perrott DR. Minimum audible movement angles as a function of sound source trajectory. J Acoust Soc Am 1990; 88: 2639–2644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Plenge G. On the differences between localization and lateralization. J Acoust Soc Am 1974; 56: 944–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sayers BM, Cherry EC. Mechanism of binaural fusion in the hearing of speech. J Acoust Soc Am 1957; 29: 973–987.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Dye RH, Yost WA, Stellmack MA et al. Stimulus classification procedure for assessing the extent to which binaural processing is spectrally analytic or synthetic. J Acoust Soc Am 1994; 96: 2720–2730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zerlin S. Interaural time and intensity difference and the MLD. J Acoust Soc Am 1966; 39: 134–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hafter ER. Spatial hearing and the duplex theory: how viable is the model? New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1984.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    McFadden D, Pasanen EG. Lateralization at high frequencies based on interaural time differences. J Acoust Soc Am 1976; 59: 634–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    McFadden D, Moffitt CM. Acoustic integration for lateralization at high frequencies. J Acoust Soc Am 1977; 61: 1604–1608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Blauert J. Binaural localization. Scand Audio! 1982; Supp1. 15: 7–26.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Poon PWF, Hwang JC, Yu WY et al. Detection of interaural time difference for clicks and tone pips: effects of interaural signal disparity. Hear Res 1984; 15: 179–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tobias JV, Schubert ED. Effective onset duration of auditory stimuli. J Acoust Soc Am 1959; 31: 1595–1605.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tobias JV, Zerlin S. Lateralization threshold as a function of stimulus duration. J Acoust Soc Am 1959; 31: 1591–1594.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yost WA. Lateralization of pulsed sinusoids based on interaural onset, ongoing, and offset temporal differences. J Acoust Soc Am 1977; 61: 190–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wallach H, Newman EB, Rosenzweig MR. The precedence effect in sound localization. Am J Psych 1949; 62: 315–337.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zurek PM. The precedence effect. In: Yost WA, Gourevitch G, ed. Directional hearing. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987: 85–105.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Moore BCJ. An introduction to the psychology of hearing. 3rd Edition. London: Academic Press, 1989.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hartmann WM, Rakerd B. On the minimum audible angle-A decision theory approach. J Acoust Soc Am 1989; 85: 2031–2041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Berkley DA. Hearing in rooms. In: Yost WA, Gourevitch G, ed. Directional hearing. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1987: 249–260.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hartmann WM. Localization of sound in rooms. J Acoust Soc Am 1983; 74: 1380–1391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Johnson DH. The relationship between spike rate and synchrony in responses of auditory-nerve fibers to single tones. J Acoust Soc Am 1980; 68: 1115–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yin TCT, Chan JCK. Neural mechanisms underlying interaural time sensitivity to tones and noise. In: Edelman GM, Gall WE, Cowan WM, ed. Auditory Function. Neurobiological basis of hearing. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1988: 385–430.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Irvine DRF. Physiology of the auditory brainstem. In: AN Popper, RR Fay, ed. The mammalian Auditory pathway: Neurophysiology. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992: 153–231.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Brown CH, Beecher MD, Moody DB et al. Localization of pure tones by old world monkeys. J Acoust Soc Am 1978; 63: 1484–1492.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Irvine DRF. The auditory brainstem. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sanes D. An in vitro analysis of sound localization mechanisms in the gerbil lateral superior olive. J Neurosci 1990; 10: 3494–3506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wu SH, Kelly JB. Binaural interaction in the lateral superior olive: Time difference sensitivity studied in mouse brain slice. J Neurophysiol 1992; 68: 1151–1159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Jeffress LA. A place theory of sound localization. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1948; 41: 35–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Goldberg JM, Brown PB. Response of binaural neurons of dog superior olivary complex to dichotic tonal stimuli: some physiological mechanisms of sound localization. J Neurophysiol 1969; 32: 613–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Yin TCT, Chan JCK, Carney LH. Effects of interaural time delays of noise stimuli on low-frequency cells in the cat’s inferior colliculus. III Evidence for cross-correlation. J Neurophysiol 1987; 58: 562–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Smith PH, Joris PX, Yin TC. Projections of physiologically characterized spherical bushy cell axons from the cochlear nucleus of the cat: evidence for delay lines to the medial superior olive. J Comp Neurol 1993; 331: 245–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Yin HS, Mackler SA, Selzer ME. Directional specificity in the regeneration of Lamprey spinal axons. Science 1984; 224: 894–895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Crow G, Langford TL, Mousegian G. Coding of interaural time differences by some high-frequency neurons of the inferior colliculus: Responses to noise bands and two-tone complexes. Hear Res 1980; 3: 147–153.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jorris P, Yin TCT. Envelope coding in the lateral superior olive. I. Sensitivity to interaural time differences. J Neurophysiol 1995; 73: 1043–1062.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Mills AW. Lateralization of high-frequency tones. J Acoust Soc Am 1960; 32: 132–134.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Mills AW. On the minimum audible angle. J Acoust Soc Am 1958; 30: 237–246.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Hirsch JA, Chan JCK, Yin TCT. Responses of neurons in the cat’s superior colliculus to acoustic stimuli. I. Monaural and binaural response properties. J Neurophysiol 1985; 53: 726–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wise LZ, Irvine DRF. Interaural intensity difference sensitivity based on facilitatory binaural interaction in cat superior colliculus. Hear Res 1984; 16: 181–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Semple MN, Kitzes LM. Binaural processing of sound pressure level in cat primary auditory cortex: Evidence for a representation based on absolute levels rather than the interaural level difference. J Neurophysiol 1993; 69.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Irvine DRF, Rajan R, Aitkin LM. Sensitivity to interaural intensity differences of neurones in primary auditory cortex of the cat: I types of sensitivity and effects of variations in sound pressure level. J Neurophysiol 1996; (in press).Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Irvine DRF, Gago G. Binaural interaction in high frequency neurones in inferior colliculus in the cat: Effects on the variation in sound pressure level on sensitivity to interaural intensity differnces. J Neurophysiol 1990; 63.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Searle CL, Braida LD, Davis MF et al. Model for auditory localization. J Acoust Soc Am 1976; 60: 1164–1175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Spiegel MF, Green DM. Signal and masker uncertainty with noise maskers of varying duration, bandwidth, and center frequency. J Acoust Soc Am 1982; 71: 1204–1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Moore BC, Oldfield SR, Dooley GJ. Detection and discrimination of spectral peaks and notches at 1 and 8 kHz. J Acoust Soc Am 1989; 85: 820–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Green DM. Auditory profile analysis: some experiments on spectral shape discrimination. In: Edelman GM, Gall WE, Cowan WM, ed. Auditory function: Neurobiological basis of hearing. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1988: 609–622.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Green DM. Profile analysis: Auditory intensity discrimination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Glasberg BR, Moore BC. Derivation of auditory filter shapes from notched-noise data. Hear Res 1990; 47: 103–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Patterson RD. The sound of a sinusoid: time-interval models. J Acoust Soc Am 1994; 96: 1419–1428.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Patterson RD. Auditory filter shapes derived with noise stimuli. J Acoust Soc Am 1976; 59: 640–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Rosen S, Baker RJ. Characterising auditory filter nonlinearity. Hear Res 1994; 73: 231–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Patterson RD, Moore BCJ. Auditory filters and excitation patterns as representations of frequency resolution. In: Moore BCJ, ed. Frequency selectivity in hearing. London: Academic Press, 1986: 123–177.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Moore BCJ, Glasberg BR. Formulae describing frequency selectivity as a function of frequency and level, and their use in calculating exitation patterns. Hear Res 1987; 28: 209–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Irvine DRF, Park VN, Mattingly JB. Responses of neurones in the inferior colliculus of the rat to interaural time and intensity differences in transient stimuli: implications for the latency hypothesis. Hear Res 1995; 85: 127–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Carlile

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations