Biology of Oxidative Stress

  • Irène Ceballos-Picot
Part of the Neuroscience Intelligence Unit book series (NIU.LANDES)


The element oxygen (O) exists in air as a molecule (O2) known as dioxygen or molecular oxygen. It was first isolated and characterized between 1772–1774 by the individual skills of the great European scientists Lavoisier and Scheele. Dioxygen, hereafter referred to as oxygen, appeared in significant amounts on the surface of the Earth some 2.5 × 109 years ago, and geological evidence suggests that this was due to the photosynthetic activity of micro-organisms (blue-green algae). The slow and steady rise in atmospheric oxygen concentration was accompanied by the formation of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Both oxygen and the ozone layer acted as critical filters against the intense solar ultraviolet light reaching the surface of the Earth. The universe exists predominantly as hydrogen (H) and helium (He) with the Earth as a unique center of oxidation in an otherwise reducing universe.


Nitric Oxide Nitric Oxide Superoxide Dismutase Glial Cell Senile Plaque 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irène Ceballos-Picot
    • 1
  1. 1.Hôpital NeckerParisFrance

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