Classification Principles: Metamorphic Facies versus Metamorphic Grade

  • Helmut G. F. Winkler


It was a milestone in the understanding of metamorphic petrology when Eskola (1915) published his concept of metamorphic facies with the intention of replacing the earlier Becke (1913) and Grubenmann (1910) concepts of metamorphic depth zones. Nevertheless this concept of depth zones was elaborated and slightly modified by Grubenmann and Niggli (1924) and remained in use for decades. In the depth zone classification the physical factors of temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and directed pressure (stress) were believed to be strictly correlated in the manner demonstrated in Table 6-1.


Metamorphic Rock Mineral Assemblage Metamorphic Grade Depth Zone Greenschist Facies 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Becke, F. 1913. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturw. KI. 75: 1–53.Google Scholar
  2. Eskola, P. 1915 Bull. Comm. Geol. Finlande 44: 109–145.Google Scholar
  3. Eskola, P. 1920/21. Norsk, Geol. Tidsskr. 6: 143–194.Google Scholar
  4. Eskola, P.1939. In Barth, Correns, and Eskola, Die Entstehung der Gesteine. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  5. Fyfe, W. S. and Turner, F. J. 1966. Contr. Mineral. Petrol. 12: 354–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goldschmidt, V. M. 1911 Kristiania Visensk. Skr. Math. Naturv. KI. 11. Google Scholar
  7. Grubenmann, U. 1910. Die kristallinen Schiefer. 2nd edit. Borntraeger, Berlin.Google Scholar
  8. Grubenmann, U. and Niggli, P. 1924. Die Gesteinsmetamorphose I. Borntraeger, Berlin.Google Scholar
  9. Lambert, R. St. J. 1965. Mineral Mag. 34: 283–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Miyashiro, A. 1961. J. Petrol. 2: 277–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Newton, R. C. 1966. Am. J. Sci. 264: 204–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Tilley, C. E. 1924. Geol. Mag. 61: 167–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Turner, F. J. 1948. Geol. Soc. Am. Memoir No. 30. Google Scholar
  14. Turner, F. J. 1968. Metamorphic Petrology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Turner, F. J. and Verhoogen, J. 1960. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. 2nd edit., McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Winkler, H. G. F. 1961. Geol. Rundschau 51: 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Winkler, H. G. F. 1965. Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks. Springer-Verlag, New York-Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Winkler, H. G. F. 1967. Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks. 2nd edit. Springer-Verlag, New York-Berlin.Google Scholar
  19. Winkler, H. G. F. 1968. Geol. Rundschau 57: 1002–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut G. F. Winkler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Mineralogy and PetrologyUniversity of GöttingenGoettingenGermany

Personalised recommendations