Advertisement

Die retrospektive Erfassung der Negativsymptomatik im Frühverlauf der Schizophrenie

  • K. Maurer
  • H. Häfner
Conference paper

Zusammenfassung

Seit Beginn der 80er Jahre beschäftigt das Thema Negativsymptomatik die Schizophrenieforschung in beträchtlichem Maße. Ausgehend von Andreasens frühen Skalenentwicklungen (SANS (4) und SAPS (5)) und Crows Typ I/II-Schizophrenie (20–25) erzielten sogenannte Dichotomiemodelle der Schizophrenie einen hohen Grad an Akzeptanz. Der Crow’sche Typ I ist gekennzeichnet durch positive Symptomatik, Ansprechen auf Neuroleptika, Reversibilität der Symptome und einen günstigen Verlauf, die Typ II-Schizophrenie durch Negativsymptomatik, weitgehende Behandlungsresistenz gegenüber herkömmlichen Neuroleptika und Irreversibilität mit chronischem Verlauf. Den Syndromen liegen nach Crow unterschiedliche pathologische Prozesse zugrunde: der Typ I-Schizophrenie eine Störung der Dopaminrezeptoren (16, 17), der Typ II-Schizophrenie wahrscheinlich ein Zellverlust mit bleibenden Strukturveränderungen des Gehirns (44, 45, 8, 73, 25, 74). Doch hat sich heute aufgrund einer großen Zahl der Arbeiten zur Reduktion des Symptomspektrums auf wenige Grunddimensionen oder Symptomklassen bzw. -typen mittels statistischer Verfahren, meistens Faktoren- oder Hauptkomponentenanalysen (58, 61 48, 56, 57, 13, 27, 11, 70, 28), der Latent Class Analyse (54), der multidimensionalen Skalierung (69, 72) oder des Facettenmodells (82, 79) die Sichtweise durchgesetzt, daß die Dichotomisierung in ein positives und ein negatives Syndrom nicht ausreicht, um die Fülle der Symptomatik angemessen reduzieren zu können.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Addington J, Addington D (1991) Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia. Their Course and Relationship over Time. Schizophrenia Research 5: 51–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC, American Psychiatric AssociationGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Psychiatric Association (1996) Diagnostisches und statistisches Manual psychischer Störungen DSM IV. Deutsche Bearbeitung von Saß H, Wittchen H-U, Zaudig M, Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andreasen NC (1983) The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Iowa City, Iowa: The University of IowaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andreasen NC (1984) The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Iowa City, Iowa: The University of IowaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andreasen NC (1990) Positive and Negative Symptoms: Historical and Conceptual Aspects. In: Andreasen NC (ed) Schizophrenia: Positive and Negative Symptoms and Syndromes. Modern Problems in Pharmacopsychiatry. Karger, Basel, 24: 1–42Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andreasen NC, Olsen S (1982) Negative vs. Positive Schizophrenia. Definition and Validation. Archives of General Psychiatry 39: 789–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andreasen NC, Olsen SA, Dennert JW, Smith MR (1982) Ventricular Enlargement in Schizophrenia: Relationship to Positive and Negative Symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry 139: 297–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Andreasen NC, Arndt S, Miller D, Flaum M, Nopoulos P(1995) Correlational Studies of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms: An Overview and Update. Psychopathology 28: 7–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arndt S, Alliger RJ, Andreasen NC (1991) The Distinction of Positive and Negative Symptoms. The Failure of a Two-dimensional Model. British Journal of Psychiatry 158: 317–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bassett AS, Bury A, Honer WG (1994) Testing Liddle’s Three-syndrome Model in Families with Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 12: 213–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berenbaum SA, Abrams R, Rosenberg S, Taylor MA (1987) The Nature of Emotional Blunting: A Factor-analytic Study. Psychiatry Research 20: 57–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biehl H, Maurer K, Jung E, Krüger G, Bauer-Schubart C (1988) Reported Symptoms in Schizophrenic Patients Within Five Years of the Onset of Illnes. In: Dencker SJ, Kulhanek F (eds) Treatment Resistance of Schizophrenia. Vieweg, Braunschweig Wiesbaden, pp 108–118Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bilder RM, Mukherjee S, Rieder RO, Pandurangi AK (1985) Symptomatic and Neuropsychological Components of Defect States. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 409–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cannon-Spoor HE, Potkin SG, Wyatt RJ (1982) Measurement of Premorbid Adjustment in Chronic Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 8: 470–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carlsson A (1978) Antipsychotic Drugs, Neurotransmitters and Schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 135: 164–173Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carlsson A (1987) The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia 20 Years Later. In: Häfner H, Gattaz WF, Janzarik W (eds) Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, Vol I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 223–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carpenter WT (1992) The Negative Symptom Challenge. Archives of General Psychiatry 49: 236–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Carpenter WT, Heinrichs DW, Wagman AMI (1988) Deficit and Nondeficit Forms of Schizophrenia: The Concept. American Journal of Psychiatry 145: 578–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Crow TJ (1980a) Molecular Pathology of Schizophrenia: More than one Disease Process? British Medical Journal 280: 66–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Crow TJ (1980b) Positive and Negative Schizophrenic Symptoms and the Role of Dopamine. British Journal of Psychiatry 137: 383–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crow TJ (1981) Positive and Negative Schizophrenia. Symptoms and the Role of Dopamine. British Journal of Psychiatry 139: 251–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Crow TJ (1983) Schizophrenic Deterioration (discussion). British Journal of Psychiatry 143: 80–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crow TJ (1985) The Two-syndrome Concept: Origins and Current Status. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 471–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crow TJ (1989) A Current View of the Type II Syndrome: Age of Onset, Intellectual Impairment, and the Meaning of Structural Changes in the Brain. British Journal of Psychiatry 155: 15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Deister A (1996) Reliabilität und Validität der gebräuchlichen Skalen zur Erfassung von NegativSymptomatik. In: Möller H-J, Engel RR, Hoff P (Hrsg) Befunderhebung in der Psychiatrie: Lebensqualität, Negativsymptomatik und andere aktuelle Entwicklungen. Springer, Wien, S 155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dollfus S, Petit M, Lesieur P, Menard JF (1991) Principal-component Analysis of PANSS and SANS-SAPS Global Ratings in Schizophrenic Patients. European Psychiatry 6: 251–259Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Eaton WW, Thara R, Federman B, Melton B, Liang K (1995) Structure and Course of Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 52: 127–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fenton WS, McGlashan TH (1991) Natural History of Schizophrenia Subtypes II. Positive and Negative Symptoms and Long-term Course. Archives of General Psychiatry 48: 978–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gross G, Huber G, Klosterkötter J, Linz M (1987) Bonner Skala für die Beurteilung von Basissymptomen (BSABS: Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms). Springer, Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Häfner H (1993) Die beginnende Schizophrenie. In: Berger M, Möller H-J, Wittchen H-U (Hrsg) Psychiatrie als Wissenschaft. Zuckerschwert, München Bern, S 70–82Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Häfner H, Maurer K (1991) Are There Two Types of Schizophrenia? True Onset and Sequence of Positive and Negative Syndromes Prior to First Admission. In: Marneros A, Andreasen NC, Tsuang MT (eds) Negative Versus Positive Schizophrenia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 134–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Häfner H, Maurer K (1995) Epidemiology of Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. In: Shriqui CL, Nasrallah HA (eds) Contemporary Issues in the Treatment of Schizophrenia. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, pp 125–154Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Häfner H, Maurer K (1996) Methodische Probleme und Lösungswege bei der Erfassung von Beginn und Frühverlauf psychischer Krankheiten am Beispiel Schizophrenie. In: Saß H (Hrsg) Psychopathologische Methoden und psychiatrische Forschung. Fischer, Jena Stuttgart, S 77–105Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Häfner H, Maurer K, Löffler W, Riecher-Rössler A (1993) The Influence of Age and Sex on the Onset and Early Course of Schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 162: 80–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Häfner H, Maurer K, Löffler W, Bustamante S, an der Heiden W, Riecher-Rössler A, Nowotny B (1995) Onset and Early Course of Schizophrenia. In: Häfner H, Gattaz WF (eds) Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, Vol III. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, S 43–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Häfner H, Riecher A, Maurer K, Meissner S, Schmidtke A, Fätkenheuer B, Löffler W, van der Heiden W (1990) Ein Instrument zur retrospektiven Einschätzung des Erkrankungsbeginns bei Schizophrenie (Instrument for the retrospective assessment of the onset of schizophrenia— „IRAOS“) — Entwicklung und erste Ergebnisse. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie, Band XIX:230–255Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Häfner H, Riecher-Rössler A, Hambrecht M, Maurer K, Meissner S, Schmidtke A, Fätkenheuer B, Löffler W, an der Heiden W (1992) IRAOS: An Instrument for the Assessment of Onset and Early Course of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 6: 209–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hambrecht M, Häfner H (1997) Sensitivity and Specificity of Relatives’ Reports on the Early Course of Schizophrenia. Psychopathology 30: 12–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Huber G (1968) Verlaufsprobleme schizophrener Erkrankungen. Schweizer Archiv für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie, 101: 346–368Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ilg C(1992) Die retrospektive Einschätzung des Erkrankungsbeginns bei Schizophrenie am Beispiel des IRAOS und dessen Retest-Reliabilitätsprüfung. Unveröffentlichte Diplomarbeit, Universität MannheimGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Janzarik W(1959) Dynamische Grundkonstellationen in endogenen Psychosen. Ein Beitrag zur Differentialtypologie der Wahnphänomene. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Janzarik W (1988) Strukturdynamische Grundlagen der Psychiatrie. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD, Husband J, Kreel I(1976) Cerebral Ventricular Size and Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Schizophrenia. Lancet II: 924–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Johnstone EC, Crow TJ, Frith CD, Carney MW, Price JS (1978) Mechanism of the Antipsychotic Effect in the Treatment of Acute Schizophrenia. Lancet 1: 848–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    de Jong A, van der Lubbe PM (1993) Groningen Questionnaire about Social Behaviour (GQSB), University of Groningen, Netherlands, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kay SR (1991) Longitudinal Course of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. In: Greden JF, Tandon R (eds) Negative Schizophrenic Symptoms: Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, London, England, Chapter 2: 23–40Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Lindenmayer JP, Opler LA (1986) Positive and Negative Syndromes in Schizophrenia as a Function of Chronicity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 74: 507–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA (1987) The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 13: 261–273Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keefe RSE, Harvey PD, Lenzenweger MF, Davidson M, Apter SH, Schmeidler J, Mohs RC, Davis KL (1992) Empirical Assessment of the Factorial Structure of Clinical Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Negative Symptoms. Psychiatry Research 44: 153–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kirkpatrick B, Buchanan RW, Breier A, Carpenter WT (1993) Case Identification and Stability of the Deficit Syndrome of Schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 47: 47–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kirkpatrick B, Buchanan RW, McKenney PD, Alphs LD, Carpenter WT (1989) The Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome: An Instrument for Research in Schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research 30: 119–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    von Knorring L, Lindström E (1995) Principal Components and Further Possibilities with the PANSS. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91: 5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lenzenweger MF, Dworkin RH, Wethington E (1989) Models of Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: An Empirical Evaluation of Latent Structures. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 98: 62–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lewine RRJ, Fogg L, Meltzer HY (1983) Assessment of Negative and Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 9: 368–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Liddle PF (1987) The Symptoms of Chronic Schizophrenia. A Re-examination of the Positivenegative Dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry 151: 145–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Liddle PF, Barnes TRE, Morris D, Haque S (1989) Three Syndromes in Chronic Schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 155 (suppl 7): 119–122Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lindenmayer J-P, Kay SR, Opler L (1984) Positive and Negative Subtypes in Acute Schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 25: 455–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lindenmayer, J-P, Kay SR, Friedman C (1986) Negative and Positive Schizophrenic Syndromes after the Acute Phase: A Prospective Follow-up. Comprehensive Psychiatry 27: 276–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lindenmayer J-P, Grochowski S, Mabugat L (1994) Clozapine Effects on Positive and Negative Symptoms: A Six-months Trial in Treatment Refractory Schizophrenics. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 14: 201–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lindenmayer J-P, Bernstein-Hyman R, Grochowski S, Bark N (1995) Psychopathology of Schizophrenia: Initial Validation of a 5-factor Model. Psychopathology 28: 22–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Malla AK, Norman RMG, Williamson P (1993) Stability of Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 38: 617–621Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Marneros A, Rohde A, Deister A (1995) Validity of the Negative/Positive Dichotomy of Schizophrenic Disorders under Long-Term Conditions. Psychopathology 28: 32–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Maurer K(1990) PSE-standardisierte Verlaufsdaten zur Minussymptomatik. In: Möller H-J, Pelzer E (Hrsg) Neuere Ansätze zur Diagnostik und Therapie schizophrener Minussymptomatik. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, S 35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Maurer K, Häfner H (1991) Dependence, Independence or Interdependence of Positive and Negative Symptoms. In: Marneros A, Andreasen NC, Tsuang MT (eds) Positive Versus Negative Schizophrenia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 160–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Maurer K, Häfner H (1995) Methodological Aspects of Onset Assessment in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 15: 265–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Maurer K, Häfner H (1996) Negativsymptomatik im Frühverlauf der Schizophrenie und im Verlauf über drei Jahre nach Ersthospitalisation. In: Möller H-J, Engel RR, Hoff P (Hrsg) Befunderhebung in der Psychiatrie: Lebensqualität, Negativsymptomatik und andere aktuelle Entwicklungen. Springer, Wien, S 225–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Maurer K, Löffler W, Häfner H (1993) The Influence of Age and Gender on Schizophrenic Syndromes Over Two Years — Results from the Mannheim ABC-Schizophrenia-Study. Poster Presentation on the WPA Symposium “Changing the Course and Outcome of Mental Disorder”, Sept 1–3, 1993, Groningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Minas IH, Stuart GW, Klimidis S, Jackson HJ, Singh BS, Copolov DL (1992) Positive and Negative Symptoms in the Psychoses. Multidimensional Scaling of SAPS and SANS Items. Schizophrenia Research 8: 143–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Minas IH, Klimidis S, Stuart GW, Copolov DL, Singh BS (1994) Positive and Negative Symptoms in the Psychoses: Principal Components Analysis of Items from the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. Comprehensive Psychiatry 35: 135–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Möller H-J, Müller H (1996) Möglichkeiten der statistischen Differenzierung von direkten und indirekten Neuroleptikaeffekten auf schizophrene Negativsymptomatik. In: Möller H-J, Engel RR, Hoff P (Hrsg) Befunderhebung in der Psychiatrie: Lebensqualität, Negativsymptomatik und andere aktuelle Entwicklungen. Springer, Wien, S 217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Moranville JT (1993) Positive and Negative Symptoms in the Psychoses: Multidimensional Scaling of SAPS and SANS Items. Schizophrenia Research 10: 277–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Pearlson GD, Garbacz DJ, Breakey WR, Ahn HS, DePaulo JR (1984) Lateral Ventricular Enlargement Associated with Persistent Unemployement and Negative Symptoms in Both Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder. Psychiatry Research 12:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pickar D, Litman RE, Konicki PE, Wolkowitz OM, Breier A (1990) Neurochemical and Neural Mechanisms of Positive and Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. In: Andreasen NC (ed) Schizophrenia: Positive and Negative Symptoms and Syndromes. Modern Problems in Pharmacopsychiatry. Karger, Basel, 24: 124–151Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pogue-Geile MF, Harrow M (1985) Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Their Longitudinal Course and Prognostic Importance. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11: 427–439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pogue-Geile MF, Harrow M (1987) Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Longitudinal Characteristics and Etiological Hypotheses. In: Harvey PD, Walker EF (eds) Positive and Negative Symptoms in Psychosis: Description, Research, and Future Directions. Erlbaum, Hillsdale New Jersey, pp 94–123Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pogue-Geile MF, Zubin J (1988) Negative Symptomatology and Schizophrenia: A Conceptual and Empirical Review. International Journal of Mental Health 16: 3–45Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rey ER, Bailer J, Bräuer W, Händel M, Laubenstein D, Stein A (1994) Stability Trends and Longitudinal Correlations of Negative and Positive Syndromes Within a Three-year Follow-up of Initially Hospitalized Schizophrenics. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 90: 405–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rösler M, Trabert W, Steinmeyer EM (1996) Facettentheoretische Analyse negativer und depressiver Symptomatik (AMDP) bei chronischer Residualschizophrenie. In: Möller H-J, Engel RR, Hoff P (Hrsg) Befunderhebung in der Psychiatrie: Lebensqualität, Negativsymptomatik und andere aktuelle Entwicklungen. Springer, Wien, S 205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Silk KR, Tandon R (1991) Negative Symptom Rating Scales. In: Greden JF, Tandon R (eds) Negative Schizophrenic Symptoms: Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications. American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, London England, Chapter 4: 61–77Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Stieglitz R-D (1991) Assessment of Negative Symptoms: Instruments and Evaluation Criteria. In: Marneros A, Andreasen NC, Tsuang MT (eds) Positive Versus Negative Schizophrenia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 52–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Trabert W, Rösler M, Pülschen D, Lamberty H-M (1996) Facettentheoretische Validitätsuntersuchung der SANS. In: Möller H-J, Engel RR, Hoff P (Hrsg) Befunderhebung in der Psychiatrie: Lebensqualität, Negativsymptomatik und andere aktuelle Entwicklungen. Springer, Wien, S 195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Weber B, Eckert J, Husemann C, Gerbaldo H, Maurer K (1996) Methode zur Selbstbeurteilung der Negativsymptomatik: Der „Fragebogen Negativsymptomatik“ (FNS). Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie: 64 Sonderheft 2: 118Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Whiteford H, Peabody C (1989) The Differential Diagnosis of Negative Symptoms in Chronic Schizophrenia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 23: 491–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wing JK, Cooper JE, Sartorius N (1973) Present State Examination (PSE): Medical Research Council. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    World Health Organization (1977) Past History and Sociodemographic Description Schedule (PHSD). WHO, 3rd draft, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    World Health Organization (1978) Psychiatric and Personal History Schedule (PPHS). WHO 5365 MNH (10/78), GenevaGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    World Health Organization (1988) Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO/DAS). WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zedlick D, Maurer K, Löffler W, Riecher-Rössler A, Häfner H (1993) Der Frühverlauf der Schizophrenie und seine Beziehung zu Alter, Geschlecht und Diagnose bei stationärer Erstaufnahme. Neurophychiatrie 7: 183–196Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Maurer
    • 1
  • H. Häfner
    • 1
  1. 1.Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit J5MannheimDeutschland

Personalised recommendations