Male Sterility

  • Walter W. Williams
Part of the Handbuch der Urologie / Encyclopedia of Urology / Encyclopédie D’Urologie book series (HDBUROL, volume 12)


Since the time of Leewenhoek, over two hundred years ago, it has been recognized that spermatozoa are essential for reproduction, but it was not generally appreciated that differences in the health of the ejaculated spermatozoa dictated differences in potential fertility until 1925 when Williams and Savage reported their observations on the relationship of spermatic structure to the reproductive fitness of bulls. Prior to this, Cary had pointed out that spermatic abnormalities, the reduction of sperm concentration and reduced sperm motility played an important role in male infertility, but his observations went essentially unnoticed because of his failure to record in precise terms his cytologic observations and to document his material so as to bring out the clinical correlations which were so obvious to him. About ten years elapsed before the more precise and better documented observations on animal breeding revealed the close correlation between spermatic pathology and the reproduction efficiency of various species of animals. It was then realized that fundamental spermatic disease played a very significant role in the etiology of infertility in various species. Such correlations of spermatic pathology to the fertility potential were reported with respect to the bull by Williams and Savage 1925 and 1927, Lagerlöf 1934, Brochart in 1951, on the cock by Conklin in 1929, the stallion by Savage, Williams and Fowler in 1930, Bielanski in 1951, and the ram in 1937 by McKensie and Berliner.


Male Sterility Male Infertility Artificial Insemination Sperm Concentration Seminal Fluid 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1960

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  • Walter W. Williams

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