Molecular Forms and Regional Distribution of Cholecystokinin in the Central Nervous System

  • Jens F. Rehfeld
  • Finn Cilius Nielsen
Part of the Neuroscience Intelligence Unit book series (NIU.LANDES)


The recognition of widespread neuronal synthesis of bioactive peptides (neuropeptides) in the brain over the last decades has advanced basic neurobiology and biologically based psychiatry significantly. The neuropeptide concept is much broader than that covering the original small group of hypothalamic peptides regulating the release of pituitary hormones. Hence, neuropeptides constitute a large number of highly potent transmitters widely expressed in all regions of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Sometimes neuropeptides are co-synthesized and operate synergistically with the small so-called classical neurotransmitters like monoamines, acetylcholine and amino acids. Paradoxically, however, early primitive neurons such as those in coelenterates use peptide-transmitters rather than the “classical” small transmitters. Hence, neuropeptides are apparently the true classical or original transmitters. Possibly, neuropeptides are involved also in functions such as neuronal growth and metabolism (for reviews, see refs. 1 and 2).


Regional Distribution Molecular Form Amygdaloid Nucleus Cholecystokinin Octapeptide Gastrin Peptide 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jens F. Rehfeld
  • Finn Cilius Nielsen

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