Crystal Structure Analysis by Diffraction

  • Ludwig Reimer
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 45)


Electrons are Bragg diffracted at lattice planes. The geometry of a diffraction pattern can be described by the kinematical theory. For the discussion of intensities it is necessary to use the dynamical theory of electron diffraction and the Bloch-wave model. Because a Bloch-wave field has nodes and antinodes at the nuclei and the probability density at the nuclei depends sensitively on the tilt relative to the Bragg position, the backscattering coefficient shows an anisotropy. When rocking an electron probe, this anisotropy of the backscattering results in the electron channelling pattern (ECP). For a stationary electron probe, the angular distribution of backscattered electrons is modulated by excess and defect Kikuchi bands, leading to an electron backscattering pattern (EBSP) which can be observed on a fluorescent screen or recorded on a photographic emulsion. At oblique incidence of the electron beam, the reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) pattern may contain Bragg diffraction spots and Kikuchi lines. ECP and EBSP are related by the theorem of reciprocity. These patterns contain information about the crystal structure, orientation and distortion.


Crystal Structure Analysis Bloch Wave Bragg Condition Kikuchi Line Ewald Sphere 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ludwig Reimer
    • 1
  1. 1.Physikalisches InstitutWestfätlische Wilhelms-Univeraität MünsterMünsterFed. Rep. of Germany

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