Advertisement

Introduction

  • Ludwig Reimer
Chapter
  • 580 Downloads
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 45)

Abstract

The principle of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is shown in Fig. 1.1. Electrons from a thermionic or field-emission cathode are accelerated by a voltage of 1–50 kV between cathode and anode. The smallest beam cross-section at the gun — the crossover — with a diameter of the order of 10–50 gm for thermionic and 10–100 nm for field-emission guns, is demagnified by a two-or three-stage electron lens system, so that an electron probe of diameter 1–10 nm carrying an electron probe current of 10−10−10−12A is formed at the specimen surface. For modes of operation that need a higher electron-probe current of 10−9−10−8A, the electron-probe diameter increases to 0.1–1 gm.

Keywords

Secondary Electron Auger Electron Minority Carrier Thin Surface Layer Secondary Electron Mode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.1
    L. Reimer: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Physics of Image Formation and Microanalysis, Springer Ser. Opt. Sci., Vol. 36 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1984 )Google Scholar
  2. 1.2
    C.W. Oatley, W.C. Nixon, R.F.W. Pease: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Adv. Electr. Electron Phys. 21, 181 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 1.3
    P.R. Thornton: Scanning Electron Microscopy, Application to Materials and Device Science ( Chapman and Hall, London 1972 )Google Scholar
  4. 1.4
    C.W. Oatley: Scanning Electron Microscopy I. The Instrument, ( University Press, Cambridge 1972 )Google Scholar
  5. 1.5
    D.B. Holt, M.D. Muir, P.R. Grant, I.M. Boswarva (eds.): Quantitative Scanning Electron Microscopy ( Academic, London 1974 )Google Scholar
  6. 1.6
    C. Wells: Scanning Electron Microscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York 1974Google Scholar
  7. 1.7
    J.I. Goldstein, H. Yakowitz: Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy ( Plenum, New York 1975 )Google Scholar
  8. 1.8
    L. Reimer, G. Pfefferkorn: Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie, 2nd ed. ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1977 )CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 1.9
    F. Maurice, L. Meny, R. Tixier (eds): Microanalyse et Microscopie Electronique à Balayage (Les Editions de Physique, Orsay 1978) Engl. Trans1.: Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1979Google Scholar
  10. 1.10
    J.I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, P. Echlin, D.C. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifshin: Scanning EZectrpn Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis (Plenum,New York 1981Google Scholar
  11. 1.11
    B.L. Gabriel: Biological Scanning Electron Microscopy ( Van Nostrand, New York 1982 )Google Scholar
  12. 1.12
    S.J.B. Reed: Electron Microprobe Analysis ( University Press, Cambridge 1975 )Google Scholar
  13. 1.13
    D.A. Erasmus: Electron Microprobe Analysis in Biology ( Chapman and Hall, London 1978 )Google Scholar
  14. 1.14
    P. Lechene, R.R. Warner (eds.): Microbeam Analysis in Biology ( Academic, New York 1979 )Google Scholar
  15. 1.15
    T.E. Hutchinson, A.B. Somlyo: Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systems ( Academic, New York 1981 )Google Scholar
  16. 1.16
    K.F.J. Heinrich: Electron Beam X-Ray Microanalysis (Van Nostrand, New York 1981) The following abbreviations are used: BEDO: Beiträge zur elektronenmikroskopischen Direktabbildung von Oberflächen (ed. G. Pfefferkorn), Remy, Münster 1968 and following years SEM: Scanning Electron Microscopy (ed. Om Johari), IITRI, Chicago 1968–1977, SEM Inc., AMF O’Hare 1978 and following yearsGoogle Scholar
  17. 1.17
    M.A. Hayat (ed.): X-Ray Microanalysis in Biology ( McMillan, London 1981 )Google Scholar
  18. 1.18
    C. Quintana, S. Halpern: Microanalyse X en Biologie. (Soc. Française de Micr. Electronique, Paris 1983 )Google Scholar
  19. 1.19
    H. Bethoe, J. Heydenreich (eds.): Elektronenmikroskopie in der Fest-körperrhysik. (VEB Deutscher Verlan der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1980) 1.20 P. Echlin: Analysis of Organic and Biological Surfaces. ( Wiley and Sons, New York 1984 )Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ludwig Reimer
    • 1
  1. 1.Physikalisches InstitutWestfätlische Wilhelms-Univeraität MünsterMünsterFed. Rep. of Germany

Personalised recommendations