• Ludwig Reimer
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 45)


The principle of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is shown in Fig. 1.1. Electrons from a thermionic or field-emission cathode are accelerated by a voltage of 1–50 kV between cathode and anode. The smallest beam cross-section at the gun — the crossover — with a diameter of the order of 10–50 gm for thermionic and 10–100 nm for field-emission guns, is demagnified by a two-or three-stage electron lens system, so that an electron probe of diameter 1–10 nm carrying an electron probe current of 10−10−10−12A is formed at the specimen surface. For modes of operation that need a higher electron-probe current of 10−9−10−8A, the electron-probe diameter increases to 0.1–1 gm.


Secondary Electron Auger Electron Minority Carrier Thin Surface Layer Secondary Electron Mode 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ludwig Reimer
    • 1
  1. 1.Physikalisches InstitutWestfätlische Wilhelms-Univeraität MünsterMünsterFed. Rep. of Germany

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