• Ludwig Reimer
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 36)


Although the main concern of this book is transmission electron microscopy, the functions and limits of the other types of electron microscopes are also mentioned in this introductory chapter to show the advantages and disadvantages of their various imaging techniques. Several types of electron microscopes and analysing instruments capable of furnishing an “image” can be distinguished. We now examine these briefly, in turn, without considering the historical sequence in which these instruments were developed. In these background sections, references are restricted to review articles and books.


Inelastic Scattering Scan Transmission Electron Microscope Spherical Aberration Conventional Transmission Electron Microscope Emission Electron Microscope 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Emission, Reflection and Mirror Electron Microscopy

  1. 1.1
    H. Düker: Emissions-Elektronenmikroskope. Acta Phys. Austriaca 18, 232 (1964).Google Scholar
  2. 1.2
    G. Möllenstedt, F. Lenz: Electron emission microscopy. Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 18, 251 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 1.3
    L. Wegmann: “Photoemissions-Elektronenmikroskopie,” in Handbuch der zerstörungsfreien Materialprüfung, ed. by E.A.W. Müller (Oldenbourg, München 1969) R.31, 1; Mikroskopie 26, 99 (1970); Optik 26, 99 (1970).Google Scholar
  4. 1.4
    L. Wegmann: The photoemission electron microscope, its technique and applications. J. Micr. 96, 1 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 1.5
    O.H. Griffith, G.H. Lescn, G.F. Rempfer, G.B. Birrel, C.A. Stafford, P.C. Jost, T.B. Mariott: Photoelectron microscopy: a new approach to mapping organic and biological surfaces. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 551 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 1.6
    S. Grund, W. Engel, P. Teufel: Photoelektronen-Emissionsmikroskop und Immunofluoreszenz. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 50, 284 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 1.7
    E. Ruska, H.O. Müller: Über Fortschritte bei der Abbildung elektronenbestrahlter Oberflächen. Z. Phys. 116, 366 (1940).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 1.8
    C. Fert: Observation directe des surfaces en microscopie électronique par reflexion. Optik 13, 378 (1956).Google Scholar
  9. 1.9
    V.E. Cosslett, D. Jones: A reflexion electron microscope. J. Sci. Instrum. 32, 86 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 1.10
    C. Fert: “Observation directe de la surface d’un échantillon massif en microscopie électronique,” in [Ref.1.57, Vol.1] p.277.Google Scholar
  11. 1.11
    W. Stenzel: “Eine Fünfelektroden-Filterlinse für Reflexions-Elektronenmikroskope,” in Electron Microscopy 1968, Vol.1, ed. by D.S. Bocciarelli (Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, Rome 1968) p.115.Google Scholar
  12. 1.12
    A.B. Bok: “Mirror Electron Microscopy: Theory and Applications,” in [Ref.1.32], p.655.Google Scholar
  13. 1.13
    A.B. Bok, J.B. Le Poole, J. Roos, H. DeLang, H. Bethge, J. Heydenreich, M.E. Barnett: “Mirror Electron Microscopy,” in Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, Vol.4, ed. by R. Barer, V.E. Cosslett (Academic, New York 1971) p. 161.Google Scholar
  14. 1.14
    G.V. Spivak, V.P. Ivannikov, A.E. Luk’yanov, E.I. Rau: Development of scanning mirror electron microscopy for quantitative evaluation of electric microfields. J. Microsc. Spectrosc. Electron 3, 89 (1978).Google Scholar
  15. 1.15
    J. Witzani, E.M. Hörl: Scanning electron mirror microscopy. Scanning 4, 53 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

  1. 1.16
    C.W. Oatley, W.C. Nixon, R.F.W. Pease: Scanning electron microscopy. Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 21, 181 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 1.17
    C.W. Oatley: Scanning Electron Microscopy I. The Instrument (University Press, Cambridge 1972).Google Scholar
  3. 1.18
    D.B. Holt, M.D. Muir, P.R. Grant, I.M. Boswarva (eds.): Quantitative Scanning Electron Microscopy (Academic, London 1974).Google Scholar
  4. 1.19
    O.C. Wells: Scanning Electron Microscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York 1974).Google Scholar
  5. 1.20
    J.I. Goldstein, H. Yakowitz: Practical Scanning Electron Microscopy (Plenum, New York 1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 1.21
    L. Reimer, G. Pfefferkorn: Raster-Elektronenmikroskopie, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 1.22
    F. Maurice, L. Meny, R. Tixier (eds.): Microanalyse et Microscopie Electronique à Balayage (Les Editions de Physique, Orsay 1978) [English transi.: Microanalysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy, 1979].Google Scholar
  8. 1.23
    J.I. Goldstein, D.E. Newbury, P. Echlin, D.C. Joy, C. Fiori, E. Lifshin: Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanaylsis (Plenum, New York 1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 1.24
    S.J.B. Reed: Electron Microprobe Analysis (University Press, Cambridge 1975).Google Scholar
  10. 1.25
    K.F.J. Heinrich: Electron Beam X-Ray Microanalysis (Van Nostrand, New York 1981).Google Scholar
  11. 1.26
    P. Lechene, R.R. Warner (eds.): Microbeam Analysis in Biology (Academic, New York 1979).Google Scholar
  12. 1.27
    M.A. Hayat (ed.): X-Ray Microanalysis in Biology (McMillan, London 1981).Google Scholar
  13. 1.28
    T.E. Hutchinson, A.B. Somlyo: Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systems (Academic, New York 1981).Google Scholar
  14. 1.29
    O. Johari (ed.): Scanning Electron Microscopy 1968–1977 (IIT Research Institute, Chicago); 1978 and following years (SEM Inc., AMF O’Hare).Google Scholar
  15. 1.30
    G. Pfefferkorn (ed.): Beiträge zur elektronenmikroskopischen Direktabbildung von Oberflächen, Vol.1 (1968) and following years (Remy, Münster).Google Scholar
  16. 1.31
    W.C. Nixon (ed.): Scanning Electron Microscopy: Systems and Applications (The Institute of Physics, London 1973).Google Scholar

Transmission Electron Microscopy (for electron optics see [2.4-7]

  1. 1.32
    S. Amelinckx, R. Gevers, G. Remaut, J. Van Landuyt: Modern Diffraction and Imaging Techniques in Material Science (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1970) 2nd ed. in 2 Vols., published in 1978.Google Scholar
  2. 1.33
    W. Baumeister, W. Vogell (eds.): Electron Microscopy at Molecular Dimensions (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1980).Google Scholar
  3. 1.34
    H. Bethge, J. Heydenreich (eds.): Elektronenmikroskopie in der Festkörperphysik (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1982).Google Scholar
  4. 1.35
    O. Brümmer, J. Heydenreich, K.H. Krebs, H.G. Schneider (eds.): Handbuch Festkörperanalyse mit Elektronen, Ionen und Röntgenstrahlen (Vieweg, Braunschweig 1980).Google Scholar
  5. 1.36
    J.M. Cowley: Diffraction Physics, 2nd ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1981).Google Scholar
  6. 1.37
    I. Dietrich: Superconducting Electron-Optical Devices (Plenum, New York 1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 1.38
    J.R. Fryer: The Chemical Applications of Transmission Electron Microscopy (Academic, London 1979).Google Scholar
  8. 1.39
    P. Goodman (ed.): Fifty Years of Electron Diffraction (Reidel, Dordrecht 1981).Google Scholar
  9. 1.40
    P. Grivet: Electron Optics II: Instruments (translated by P.W. Hawkes) (Pergamon, Oxford 1972).Google Scholar
  10. 1.41
    P.J. Grundy, G.A. Jones: Electron Microscopy in the Study of Materials (Edwards Arnold, London 1976).Google Scholar
  11. 1.42
    P.W. Hawkes (ed.): Image Processing and Computer-Aided Design in Electron Optics (Academic, London 1973).Google Scholar
  12. 1.43
    P.W. Hawkes (ed.): Computer Processing of Electron Microscope Images, Topics Curr. Phys., Vol.13 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1980).Google Scholar
  13. 1.44
    P.W. Hawkes: Electron Optics and Electron Microscopy (Taylor & Francis, London 1972).Google Scholar
  14. 1.45
    R.D. Heidenreich: Fundamentals of Transmission Electron Microscopy (Wiley, New York 1964).Google Scholar
  15. 1.46
    M. von Heimendahl: Einführung in die Elektronenmikroskopie (Vieweg, Braunschweig 1970).Google Scholar
  16. 1.47
    P.B. Hirsch, A. Howie, R.B. Nicholson, D.W. Pashley, M.J. Whelan: Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals (Butterworths, London 1965).Google Scholar
  17. 1.48
    F. Hornbogen: Durchstrahlungselektronenmikroskopie fester Stoffe (Chemie, Weinheim 1971).Google Scholar
  18. 1.49
    W. Hoppe, R. Mason (eds.): Unconventional electron microscopy for molecular structure determination. Adv. Struct. Res. Diffr. Methods 7 (1979).Google Scholar
  19. 1.50
    J.J. Hren, J.I. Goldstein, D. Joy: Introduction to Analytical Electron Microscopy (Plenum, New York 1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 1.51
    H.E. Huxley, A. Klug: New developments in electron microscopy. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. B261, 1–230 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 1.52
    B. Jouffrey (ed.): Methodes et Techniques Nouvelles d’Observation en Métallurgie Physique (Societe Francaise du Microscopie Electronique, Paris 1972).Google Scholar
  22. 1.53
    D.H. Kay: Techniques for Electron Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Blackwell, Oxford 1965).Google Scholar
  23. 1.54
    J.K. Koehler (ed.): Advanced Techniques in Biological Electron Microscopy (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1973); Specific Ultrastructural Problems (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1978).Google Scholar
  24. 1.55
    R.H. Lange, J. Blödorn: Das Elektronenmikroskop, TEM + REM (Thieme, Stuttgart 1981).Google Scholar
  25. 1.56
    M.H. Loretto, R.E. Smellman: Defect Analysis in Electron Microscopy (Chapman and Hall, London 1975).Google Scholar
  26. 1.57
    C. Magnan (ed.): Traité de microscopie electronique, Vols.1,2 (Herman, Paris 1961).Google Scholar
  27. 1.58
    G.A. Meek: Practical Electron Microscopy for Biologists, 2nd ed. (Wiley, London 1976).Google Scholar
  28. 1.59
    D.L. Misell: Image Analysis, Enhancement and Interpretation (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1970).Google Scholar
  29. 1.60
    D.C. Pease: Historical Techniques for Electron Microscopy, 2nd ed. (Academic, New York 1964).Google Scholar
  30. 1.61
    J. Picht, J. Heydenreich: Einführung in die Elektronenmikroskopie (VEB Verlag Technik, Berlin 1966).Google Scholar
  31. 1.62
    L. Reimer: Elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungs-und Präparationsmethoden, 2nd ed. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 1.63
    E. Ruska: Die frühe Entwicklung der Elektronenlinsen und der Elektronenmikroskopie. Acta Historica Leopoldina 12 (Barth, Leipzig 1979); The early development of electron lenses and electron microscopy. Microsc. Acta Suppl. 5 (1980).Google Scholar
  33. 1.64
    W.O. Saxton: Computer Techniques for Image Processing in Electron Microscopy (Academic, New York 1978).Google Scholar
  34. 1.65
    G. Schimmel: Elektronenmikroskopische Methodik (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 1.66
    B.M. Siegel (ed.): Modern Developments in Electron Microscopy (Academic, New York 1964).Google Scholar
  36. 1.67
    B.M. Siegel, D.R. Beaman (eds.): Physical Aspects of Electron Microscopy and Microbeam Analysis (Wiley, New York 1975).Google Scholar
  37. 1.68
    F.S. Sjöstrand: Electron Microscopy of Cells and Tissues I. Instrumentation and Techniques (Academic, New York 1967).Google Scholar
  38. 1.69
    J.C.H. Spence: Experimental High-Resolution Electron Microscopy (University Press, Oxford 1981).Google Scholar
  39. 1.70
    G. Thomas: Transmission Electron Microscopy of Metals (Wiley, New York 1962).Google Scholar
  40. 1.71
    G. Thomas, J. Washburn: Electron Microscopy and Strength of Crystals (Interscience, New York 1963).Google Scholar
  41. 1.72
    G. Thomas, M.J. Goringe: Transmission Electron Microscopy of Metals (Wiley, New York 1979).Google Scholar
  42. 1.73
    J.N. Turner (ed.): Methods in Cell Biology, Vol.22, Three-Dimensional Ultrastructure in Biology (Academic, New York 1981).Google Scholar
  43. 1.74
    U. Valdrè: Electron Microscopy in Material Science (Academic, New York 1971).Google Scholar
  44. 1.75
    U. Valdré, E. Ruedl (eds.): Electron Microscopy in Materials Science, Part I-IV (Commission of the European Communities, Brussels 1975).Google Scholar
  45. 1.76
    V.E. Cosslett, R. Barer (eds.): Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, Vol.1 (Academic, London 1966) series continued.Google Scholar
  46. 1.77
    A.M. Glauert (ed.): Practical Methods in Electron Microscopy (North-Holland, Amsterdam 1972) series continued.Google Scholar
  47. 1.78
    J.D. Griffiths (ed.): Electron Microscopy in Biology, Vol.1 (Wiley, New York 1981) series continued.Google Scholar
  48. 1.79
    A.M. Hayat: Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy (Van Nostrand, New York 1970).Google Scholar


  1. 1.80
    Proc. Annual Meeting of EMSA (Electron Microscopy Society of America) (Claitor’s Publ. Div., Baton Rouge, L0 1967 and following years).Google Scholar
  2. 1.81
    Proc. EMAG (Electron Microscope Analysis Group, UK); Electron Microscopy and Analysis (Institute of Physics, London 1971); Developments in Electron Microscopy and Analysis 1975 (Academic, London 1976); Meetings of 1977, 1979 and 1981 (Institute of Physics, London).Google Scholar
  3. 1.82
    Electron Microscopy. Proc. Stockholm Conference 1956, ed. by F.J. Ströstrand, J. Rhodin (Almqvist and Wiksells, Stockholm 1957).Google Scholar
  4. 1.83
    Proc. Europ. Reg. Conf. on Electron Microscopy, Delft, Vols.1,2, ed. by A.L. Houwink, B.J. Spit (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Electronenmicroscopie, Delft 1960).Google Scholar
  5. 1.84
    Electron Microscopy 1964, Proc. 3rd Europ. Reg. Conf., Vols.A, B, ed. by M. Titlbach (Czechoslovak Acad. Sci., Prague 1964).Google Scholar
  6. 1.85
    Electron Microscopy 1968, Vols.1,2, ed. by D.S. Bocciarelli (Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, Rome 1968).Google Scholar
  7. 1.86
    Electron Microscopy 1972, Proc. 5th Europ. Congr. Electron Microscopy, Manchester (Institute of Physics, London 1972).Google Scholar
  8. 1.87
    Electron Microscopy 1976, Proc. 6th Europ. Congr. Electron Microscopy, Jerusalem, Vol.1, ed. by D.G. Brandon, Vol.2, ed. by Y. Ben Shaul (Tal International, Jerusalem 1976).Google Scholar
  9. 1.88
    Electron Microscopy 1980, Proc. 7th Europ. Congr. Electron Microscopy, The Hague, Vols.1-4, ed. by P. Brederoo et al. (Seventh European Congress on Electron Microscopy Foundation, Leiden 1980).Google Scholar

International Congresses on Electron Microscopy

  1. 1.89
    Comptes Rendus du Premier Congrès International de Microscopie Electronique, Paris 1950, Revue d’Optique Théorique et Instrumentale, Paris (1953).Google Scholar
  2. 1.90
    Proc. 3rd Intern. Conf. Electron Microscopy, London 1954, ed. by R. Ross (Royal Microscopical Soc, London 1956).Google Scholar
  3. 1.91
    Vierter Internationaler Kongreß für Elektronenmikroskopie, Berlin 1958, Vols.1,2, ed. by W. Bargmann et al. (Springer, Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg 1960).Google Scholar
  4. 1.92
    Electron Microscopy 1962, 5th Intern. Congr. Electron Microscopy, Philadelphia 1962, Vols.1,2, ed. by S.S. Breese (Academic, New York 1962).Google Scholar
  5. 1.93
    Electron Microscopy 1966, 6th Intern. Congr. Electron Microscopy, Vols.1,2, ed. by R. Uyeda (Maruzen, Tokyo 1966).Google Scholar
  6. 1.94
    Microscopie Electronique 1970, Grenoble, Vols.1,2,3, ed. by P. Favard (Société Francaise de Microscopie Electronique, Paris 1970).Google Scholar
  7. 1.95
    Electron Microscopy 1974, Canberra, Vols.1,2, ed. by J.V. Sanders, D.J. Goodchild (Australian Acad. Sci., Canberra 1974).Google Scholar
  8. 1.96
    Electron Microscopy 1978, Toronto, Vols.1,2,3, ed. by J.M. Sturgess (Microscopical Soc. Canada, Toronto 1978).Google Scholar

Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

  1. 1.97
    R.E. Bürge, M.T. Browne, S. Lackovic, J.F.L. Ward: “STEM Imaging at High Resolution: the Influence of Detector Geometry,” in Scanning Electron Microscopy 1979/I, ed. by O. Johari (SEM Inc., AMF O’Hare 1979) p.127.Google Scholar
  2. 1.98
    A.V. Crewe: The current state of high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Q. Rev. Biophys. 3, 137 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 1.99
    A.V. Crewe: Scanning transmission electron microscopy. J. Micr. 100, 247 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

High Voltage Electron Microscopy (for HVEM conferences see [4.47-51]

  1. 1.100
    V.E. Cosslett: Current developments in high voltage electron microscopy J. Micr. 100, 233 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 1.101
    V.E. Cosslett: “Recent Progress in High Voltage Electron Microscopy,” in [Ref.1.32], p.341.Google Scholar
  3. 1.102
    G. Dupouy: “Electron Microscopy at Very High Voltages,” in Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy, Vol.2, ed. by R. Barer, V.E. Cosslett (Academic, New York 1966).Google Scholar
  4. 1.103
    G. Dupouy: Advantages of megavolt electron microscopy in biological research. Ultramicroscopy 2, 199 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 1.104
    R.M. Fisher, T. Imura: New applications and extensions of the unique advantages of HVEM for physical and materials research. Ultramicroscopy 3, 3 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 1.105
    M.V. King, D.F. Parsons, J.N. Turner, B.B. Chang, A.J. Ratkowski: Progress in applying the high voltage electron microscopy to biomedical research. Cell Biophys. 2, 1 (1980).Google Scholar
  7. 1.106
    J.B. LePoole, A.B. Bok, P.J. Rus: “A Compact 1 MV-Electron Microscope,” in Microscopie Electronique 1970, Vol.1, ed. by P. Favard (Societe Francaise Microscopie Electronique, Paris 1970) p.113.Google Scholar
  8. 1.107
    P. van Zuylen, L.A. Fontijn: “Preliminary Results with the TPD 1000 kV Electron Microscope,” in High Voltage Electron Microscopy, ed. by P.R. Swann, C.J. Humphreys, M.J. Goringe (Academic, London 1974) p.114.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ludwig Reimer
    • 1
  1. 1.Physikalisches InstitutWestfälische Wilhelms-Universität MünsterMünsterFed. Rep. of Germany

Personalised recommendations