Interaction of Respiratory Muscles and Circulation in Heart Failure

  • T. Vassilakopoulos
  • C. Roussos
  • S. Zakynthinos
Conference paper
Part of the Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (YEARBOOK, volume 1999)


According to Braunwald’s textbook of heart diseases [1], heart failure is the pathophysiological state in which an abnormality of cardiac function is responsible for failure of the heart to pump blood at a rate commensurate with the requirements of metabolizing tissues, or to do so only from elevated filling pressures. The clinical manifestations of heart failure, i.e., fatigue and dyspnea which limit exercise/activity tolerance, are well recognized by physicians. The consequencies of heart failure on respiratory muscle function though significant are not usually appreciated. These consequencies will be the subject of the first part of this chapter.


Heart Failure Chronic Heart Failure Inferior Vena Cava Heart Failure Patient Respiratory Muscle 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Vassilakopoulos
  • C. Roussos
  • S. Zakynthinos

There are no affiliations available

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