Focal Cerebral Ischemia

  • S. Kuroda
  • P. Siesjö
  • B. K. Siesjö
Conference paper
Part of the Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (YEARBOOK, volume 1997)


Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydrogen peroxide and oxygen-derived free radicals, are involved in various neurologic disorders [1–3]. Reperfusion following transient forebrain or focal cerebral ischemia is believed to enhance the production of ROS, which in turn initiates a vicious cascade of tissue injury (for general review on oxidants in ischemic damage, see [4, 5]). Thus, the involvement of ROS in reperfusion injury has been reported in models of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils and rats [6–9], although its importance seems to be different between the two species [10]. Also, reperfusion following 1 or 2 has of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) gives rise to the marked increase in ROS production during its early phase (20–60 min) [11, 12]. In spite of sustained normalization of blood flow [13, 14], mitochondrial function and bio energetic state recover only partially at 1 h of reperfusion, and both of them deteriorate secondarily after 4 h [15–17]. This secondary deterioration of cerebral metabolism correlates with secondary elevation of extra-cellular glutamate after 2–4 h of reperfusion [18], and of potassium alter 6 h [19]. Furthermore, the findings that a spin trapping agent, a-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) ameliorates infarct volume and improves both mitochondrial function and bioenergetic state, even when given after 1 h of reperfusion following 2 h of MCAO [15, 16, 20], strongly suggest that ROS play an important role in reperfusion damage due to transient foval ischemia. This raises the following questions: First, which reactions generate ROS during reperfusion? Second, which is the major target of ROS-mediated reperfusion injury?


Nitric Oxide Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Reperfusion Injury Focal Cerebral Ischemia Permeability Transition Pore 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kuroda
  • P. Siesjö
  • B. K. Siesjö

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