The Cytokine Response to Hemorrhagic Shock

  • J. M. Kane
  • T. R. Billiar
Conference paper
Part of the Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (YEARBOOK, volume 1997)


Although animals face many noxious and potentially lethal stimuli, the overall response to these insults tend to be conserved. Be it bacteria or blood loss, the final physiologic and cellular conditions are often remarkably similar. This occurs primarily due to the funneling of signals into common pathways. Cellular signaling both locally and remote to the site of an insult is usually facilitated via cytokines. Specific cytokines in this “warning/activation” system are frequently increased dramatically in response to injury. Often, a given cytokine affects the next molecule in the cascade, as one sees in sepsis. In addition, a large portion of this regulation occurs at the molecular level, with overexpression or suppression of specific products.


Tumor Necrosis Factor Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Hemorrhagic Shock Bacterial Translocation Tumor Necrosis Factor Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Kane
  • T. R. Billiar

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