Inflammatory Responses During Human Endotoxemia

  • D. Pajkrt
  • T. van der Poll
  • S. J. H. van Deventer
Conference paper
Part of the Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (YEARBOOK, volume 1997)


Sepsis may be defined as a systemic inflammatory response to an infection, characterized by alterations in temperature, leukocytosis, hypotension, hypoperfusion with tissue injury and often organ failure, frequently resulting in death. The last 30 years, the incidence of sepsis and septic shock has continued to increase to almost half a million cases in the United States per year, with a mortality of 35% [1]. Although sepsis may be associated with infection by all classes of microorganisms, including Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoa and viruses, it is most commonly caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Ample evidence indicates that endotoxin, the lipopolysaccharide part of the Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane, is importantly involved in the clinical syndrome of Gram-negative sepsis [2]. Administration of endotoxin to man elicits a systemic inflammatory response with many features of sepsis, including release of cytokines, and activation of leukocytes and the coagulation and fibrinolytic system [3].


Tissue Factor Expression Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein Endotoxin Tolerance Endotoxin Administration Experimental Endotoxemia 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Pajkrt
  • T. van der Poll
  • S. J. H. van Deventer

There are no affiliations available

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