Trees III pp 423-445 | Cite as

White Spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] and Black Spruce [Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.]

  • S. M. Attree
  • D. I. Dunstan
  • L. C. Fowke
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 16)


The genus Picea, the spruces, is a member of the family Pinaceae, the largest family of conifers. There are about 40 species of spruce (Safford 1974), found principally in north temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America. Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce), and Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P. (black spruce) are restricted primarily to North America. This introduction focuses on Picea glauca because of its greater abundance and economic importance.


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Embryogenic Callus Zygotic Embryo Mature Zygotic Embryo 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackerson RC (1984) Regulation of soybean embryogenesis by abscisic acid. J Exp Bot 35: 403–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ammirato PV (1983) Embryogenesis. In: Evans DA, Sharp WR, Ammirato PV, Yamada Y (eds) Handbook of plant cell culture, vol 1. Macmillan, New York, pp 82–123Google Scholar
  3. Ammirato PV (1984) Induction and maintenance of cell suspension cultures. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, vol 1. Laboratory procedures and their applications. Academic Press, New York Orlando, pp 139–151Google Scholar
  4. Arnold S von (1987) Improved efficiency of somatic embryogenesis in mature embryos of Picea ables (L.) Karst. J Plant Physiol 128: 233–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnold S von, Eriksson T (1981) In vitro studies of adventitious shoot formation in Pinus contorta. Can J Bot 59: 870–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold S von, Eriksson T (1986) Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 1: Trees I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 291–310Google Scholar
  7. Arnold S von, Hakman I (1986) Effects of sucrose on initiation of embryogenic callus from mature zygotic embryos of Picea abies (L.) Karst. ( Norway spruce ). J Plant Physiol 122: 251–265Google Scholar
  8. Arnold S von, Hakman I (1988) Regulation of somatic embryo development in Picea abies by abscisic acid ( ABA ). J Plant Physiol 132: 164–169Google Scholar
  9. Arnold S von, Woodward S (1988) Organogenesis and embryogenesis in mature zygotic embryos of Picea sitchensis. Tree Physiol 4: 291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Attree SM, Sheffield E (1986) Ficoll density gradient centrifugation as a method for eliminatingGoogle Scholar
  11. microbial contamination and purifying plant protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep 5:288–291Google Scholar
  12. Attree SM, Fowke LC (1991) Somatic embryogenesis in conifers. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 17 Hi-Teck and micropropagation. Springer, Berlin (in press)Google Scholar
  13. Attree SM, Bekkaoui F, Dunstan D, Fowke LC (1987) Regeneration of protoplasts from an embryogenic suspension culture of white spruce (Picea glauca). Plant Cell Rep 6: 480–483Google Scholar
  14. Attree SM, Dunstan D, Fowke LC (1989a) Initiation of embryogenic callus and suspension cultures, and improved embryo regeneration from protoplasts of white spruce (Picea glauca). Can J Bot 67: 1790–1795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Attree SM, Dunstan DI, Fowke LC (1989b) Plantlet regeneration from embryogenic protoplasts of white spruce (Picea glauca). Bio/Technology 7: 1060–1062Google Scholar
  16. Attree SM, Budimir S, Fowke LC (1990) Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from cultured shoots and cotyledons of seedlings germinated from stored seed of black and white spruce (Picea mariana and Picea glauca). Can J Bot 68: 30–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bayliss MW (1977) Factors affecting the frequency of tetraploid cells in a predominantly diploid suspension of Daucus carota. Protoplasma 92: 109–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Becwar MR, Noland TL, Wann SR (1987a) A method for quantification of the level of somatic embryogenesis among Norway spruce callus lines. Plant Cell Rep 6: 35–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Becwar MR, Noland TL, Wann SR (1987b) Somatic embryo development and plant regeneration from embryogenic Norway spruce callus. Tappi 70: 155–160Google Scholar
  20. Becwar MR, Noland TL, Wyckoff JL (1989) Maturation, germination, and conversion of Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) somatic embryos to plants. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 25: 575–580Google Scholar
  21. Bekkaoui F, Saxena PK, Attree SM, Fowke LC, Dunstan DI (1987) The isolation and culture of protoplasts from an embryogenic suspension culture of Picea glauca ( Moench) Voss. Plant Cell Rep 6: 476–479Google Scholar
  22. Bekkaoui F, Pilon M, Laine E, Raju DSS, Crosby WL, Dunstan DI (1988) Transient gene expression in electroporated Picea glauca protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep 7: 481–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bonga JM (1981) Organogenesis in vitro of tissues from mature conifers. In Vitro 17: 511–518Google Scholar
  24. Boulay MP, Gupta PK, Krogstrup P, Durzan DJ (1988) Development of somatic embryos from cell suspension cultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). Plant Cell Rep 7: 134–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Campbell RA, Durzan DJ (1975) Induction of multiple buds and needles in tissue cultures of Picea glauca. Can J Bot 53: 1652–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Campbell RA, Durzan DJ (1976) Vegetative propagation of Picea glauca by tissue culture. Can J For Res 6: 240–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chafe SC, Durzan DJ (1973) Tannin inclusions in cell suspensions of white spruce. Planta 113: 251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chalupa V, Durzan DJ (1973) Growth and development of resting buds of conifers in vitro. Can J For Res 3: 196–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Crouch ML, Sussex IM (1981) Development and storage protein synthesis in Brassica napus L. embryos in vivo and in vitro. Planta 153: 64–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. David A (1982) In vitro propagation of gymnosperms. In: Bonga JM, Durzan DJ (eds) Tissue culture in forestry. Nijhoff/Junk, The Hague, pp 72–108Google Scholar
  31. David A, David H (1979) Isolation and callus formation from cotyledon protoplasts of pine (Pinus pinaster). Z Pflanzenphysiol 94: 173–177Google Scholar
  32. David H, Jarlet E, David A (1984) Effects of nitrogen source, calcium concentration and osmotic stress on protoplasts and protoplast-derived cell cultures of Pinus pinaster cotyledons. Physiol Plant 61: 477–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dunstan DI, Mohammed GH, Thorpe TA (1987) Morphogenetic response of vegetative bud explants of adolescent and mature Picea glauca ( Moench) Voss in vitro. New Phytol 106: 225–236Google Scholar
  34. Dunstan DI, Bekkaoui F, Pilon M, Fowke LC, Abrams SR (1988) Effects of ABA and analogues on the maturation of white spruce (Picea glauca) somatic embryos. Plant Sci 58: 77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Durzan DJ (1980) Prospects for the mass propagation of economically important conifers by cell and tissue culture. In: Sala F, Parsi B, Cella R, Ciferri O (eds) Plant cell cultures: results and perspectives. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam New York, pp 283–288Google Scholar
  36. Durzan DJ (1982) Somatic embryogenesis and sphaeroblasts in conifer cell suspensions. In: Fujiwara A (ed) Plant tissue culture 1982. Maruzen, Tokyo, pp 113–114Google Scholar
  37. Durzan DJ, Gupta PK (1987) Somatic embryogenesis and polyembryogenesis in Douglas-fir cell suspension cultures. Plant Sci 52: 229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Durzan DJ, Chafe SC, Lopushanski SM (1973) Effects of environmental changes on sugars, tannins, and organized growth in suspension cultures of white spruce. Planta 113: 241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Evans DA, Gamborg OL (1982) Chromosome stability of cell suspension cultures of Nicotiana species. Plant Cell Rep 1: 104–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Faye M, David A (1983) Isolation and culture of gymnosperm root protoplasts (Pinus pinaster). Physiol Plant 59: 359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Farnum P, Timmis R, Kulp JL (1983) Biotechnology of forest yield. Science 219: 694–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Feirer RP, Conkey JH, Verhagen SA (1989) Triglycerides in embryogenic conifer calli: a comparison with zygotic embryos. Plant Cell Rep 8: 207–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Foster AS, Gifford EM (1974) Comparative morphology of vascular plants, 2nd edn. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  44. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1986a) Plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from subcultured callus of mature embryos of Picea abies ( Norway spruce ). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 22: 685–688Google Scholar
  45. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1986b) Somatic polyembryogenesis from callus of mature sugar pine embryos. Biotechnology 4: 643–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1986c) Isolation and cell regeneration of protoplasts from sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana). Plant Cell Rep 5: 346–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1987a) Biotechnology of somatic polyembryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in loblolly pine. Biotechnology 5: 147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1987b) Somatic embryos from protoplasts of loblolly pine proembryonal cells. Biotechnology 5: 710–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gupta PK, Dandekar AM, Durzan DJ (1988) Somatic proembryo formation and transient gene expression of a luciferase gene in Douglas fir and loblolly pine protoplasts. Plant Sci 58: 85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hakman I, Fowke LC (1987a) Somatic embryogenesis in Picea glauca (white spruce) and Picea mariana (black spruce). Can J Bot 65: 656–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hakman I, Fowke LC (1987b) An embryogenic suspension culture of Picea glauca (white spruce). Plant Cell Rep 6: 20–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hakman I, Arnold S von (1983) Isolation and growth of protoplasts from cell suspensions of Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud. Plant Cell Rep 2: 92–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hakman I, Arnold S von (1985) Plantlet regeneration through somatic embryogenesis in Picea abies ( Norway spruce ). J Plant Physiol 121: 149–158Google Scholar
  54. Hakman I, Arnold S von (1988) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from suspension cultures of Picea glauca (white spruce). Physiol Plant 72: 579–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hakman I, Fowke LC, Arnold S von, Eriksson T (1985) The development of somatic embryos in tissue cultures initiated from immature embryos of Picea abies ( Norway spruce ). Plant Sci 38: 53–59Google Scholar
  56. Hakman I, Rennie P, Fowke LC (1987) A light and electron microscope study of Picea glauca (white spruce) somatic embryos. Protoplasma 140: 100–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ho RH (1989) Adventitious root and shoot regeneration in cultured explants of mature black spruce. Plant Science 62: 129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hosie RC (1979) Native trees of Canada. Seventh edition. Can For Serv, Dep EnvironGoogle Scholar
  59. Jain SM, Newton RJ, Soltes EJ (1988) Enhancement of somatic embryogenesis in Norway spruce (Picea abies L.). Theor Appl Genet 76: 501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kartha KK, Fowke LC, Leung NL, Caswell KL, Hakman I (1988) Induction of somatic embryos and plantlets from cryopreserved cell cultures of white spruce (Picea glauca). J Plant Physiol 132: 529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. King PJ (1984) Induction and maintenance of cell suspension cultures. In: Vasik IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants, vol 1. Laboratory procedures and their applications. Academic Press, New York Orlando, pp 130–138Google Scholar
  62. Kirby EG, Cheng TY (1979) Colony formation from protoplasts derived from Douglas fir cotyledons. Plant Sci Lett 14: 145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Krogstrup P (1986) Embryo like structures from cotyledons and ripe embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Can J For Res 16: 664–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Krogstrup P, Eriksen EN, Moller JD, Roulund H (1988) Somatic embryogenesis in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) (Bong. Can. ). Plant Cell Rep 7: 594–597Google Scholar
  65. Lainé E, David H, David A (1988) Callus formation from cotyledon protoplasts of Pinus oocarpa and Pinus patula. Physiol Plant 72: 374–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lelu M-A, Boulay M, Arnaud Y (1987) Obtention de cals embryogènes à partir de cotylédons de Picea abies (L.) Karst. prélevés sur de jeunes plantes âgées de 3 à 7 jours après germination. C R Acad Sci Paris 305: 105–109Google Scholar
  67. Litvay JD, Johnson MA, Verma D, Einspahr D, Weyrauch K (1981) Conifer suspension culture medium development using analytical data from developing seeds. Tech Pap Ser Inst Paper Chem 115: 1–17Google Scholar
  68. Lockhart DD (1985) Protecting the forests of New Brunswick against “the insect” — an overview. For Chron 61: 382–384Google Scholar
  69. Lu C-Y, Thorpe TA (1987) Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration in cultured immature embryos of Picea glauca. J Plant Physiol 128: 297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mercier JC (1985) Protection of the forest: a social and economic imperative. For Chron 61: 378–381Google Scholar
  71. Mo LH, Arnold S von, Lagercrantz U (1989) Morphogenic and genetic stability in longterm embryogenic cultures and somatic embryos of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst. ). Plant Cell Rep 8: 375–378Google Scholar
  72. Mohammed GH, Vidaver WE (1988) Root production and plantlet development in tissue-cultured conifers. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 14: 137–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mohammed GH, Dunstan DI, Thorpe TA (1986) Influence of nutrient medium upon shoot initiation on vegetative explants excised from 15- to 18-year-old Picea glauca. N Z J For Sci 16: 297–305Google Scholar
  74. Mott RL (1981) Trees. In: Conger BV (ed) Cloning agricultural plants via in vitro techniques. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 217–254Google Scholar
  75. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Nagmani R, Becwar MR, Wann SR (1987) Single-cell origin and development of somatic embryos in Picea abies (L.) Karst. (Norway spruce) and Picea glauca ( Moench) Voss (white spruce ). Plant Cell Rep 6: 157–159Google Scholar
  77. Norstog K, Rhamstine E (1967) Isolation and culture of haploid and diploid cycad tissues. Phytomorphology 17: 374–381Google Scholar
  78. Owens JN, Molder M (1984) The reproductive cycle of interior spruce. Prov B C, Inf Sery Branch, Min For, Victoria, B C, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  79. Roberts DR, Flinn BS, Webb DT, Webster FB, Sutton BCS (1990) Abscisic acid and indole-3-butyric acid regulation of maturation and accumulation of storage proteins in somatic embryos of interior spruce. Physiol Plant (in press)Google Scholar
  80. Rumary C, Thorpe TA (1984) Plantlet formation in black and white spruce. 1. In vitro techniques. Can J For Res 14: 10–16Google Scholar
  81. Safford LO (1974) Picea A. Dietr. Spruce. In: Schopmeyer CS (ed) Seeds of woody plants in the United States. USDA Handbook 450:487–597Google Scholar
  82. Schenk RU, Hildebrandt AC (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can J Bot 50: 199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shillito RD, Pazkowski J, Potrykus I (1983) Agarose plating and bead type culture technique enable and stimulate development of protoplast-derived colonies in a number of plant species. Plant Cell Rep 2: 244–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Smith DR (1986) Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don.). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 1: Trees I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 274–291Google Scholar
  85. Sommer HE, Brown CL (1979) Application of tissue culture to forest tree improvement. In: Sharp WR, Larsen PO, Paddock EF, Raghavan V (eds) Plant cell and tissue culture-principles and applications. Ohio State Univ Press, Columbus, pp 461–491Google Scholar
  86. Street HE (1977) Cell (suspension) cultures — techniques. In: Street HE (ed) Plant tissue and cell culture, 2nd edn. Univ Cal Press, Berkeley, pp 61–102Google Scholar
  87. Tautorus TE, Bekkaoui F, Pilon M, Datla RSS, Crosby WL, Fowke LC, Dunstan DI (1989) Factors affecting transient gene expression in electroporated black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) protoplasts. Theor Appl Genet 78: 531–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tautorus TE, Attree SM, Fowke LC, Dunstan DI (1990) Somatic embryogenesis from immature and mature zygotic embryos, and embryo regeneration from protoplasts in black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.). Plant Science 67: 115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Teasdale RD, Rugini E (1983) Preparation of viable protoplasts from cell suspension-cultured loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) cells and subsequent regeneration to callus. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 2: 253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Toivonen PMA, Kartha KK (1988) Regeneration of plantlets from in vitro cultured cotyledons of white spruce (Picea glauca ( Moench) Voss). Plant Cell Rep 7: 318–321Google Scholar
  91. Tremblay FM (1990) Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from embryos isolated from stored seeds of Picea glauca. Can J Bot 68: 236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Verhagen SA, Wann SR (1989) Norway spruce somatic embryogenesis: high frequency initiation from light-cultured mature embryos. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 16: 103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wann SR, Johnson MA, Noland TL, Carlson JA (1987) Biochemical differences between embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus of Picea abies ( L.) Karst. Plant Cell Rep 6: 39–42Google Scholar
  94. Wareing PF, Phillips IDJ (1981) Growth and differentiation in plants, 3rd edn. Pergamon, Oxford Webb DT, Webster F, Flinn BS, Roberts DR, Ellis DD (1989) Factors influencing the induction of embryogenic and caulogenic callus from embryos of Picea glauca and P. engelmannii. Can J For Res 19:1303–1308Google Scholar
  95. Wilson SM, Thorpe TA, Moloney MM (1989) PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca. Plant Cell Rep 7: 704–707Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Attree
    • 1
  • D. I. Dunstan
    • 2
  • L. C. Fowke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Plant Biotechnology InstituteNational Research CouncilSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations