Trees III pp 383-407 | Cite as

Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.)

  • P. K. Gupta
  • D. J. Durzan
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 16)


Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is the leading commercial timber species in the southern United States. Carolus Linnaeus gave loblolly pine its scientific name, Pinus taeda, over 225 years ago. Taeda is the ancient name for resinous pines. It comes from the Latin, meaning torch. In Roman times, taeda was applied to several of the hard, pitchy pines (Wahlenberg 1960).


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Cell Suspension Culture Genetic Gain Seed Orchard 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abo El-Nil MM (1982) Method for asexual reproduction of coniferous trees. US Patent 4, 353, 184Google Scholar
  2. Amerson HV, Frampton LJ, McKeand SE, Mott RL, Weir RJ (1985) Loblolly pine tissue culture: Laboratory, greenhouse and field studies. In: Henke RR, Hughes KW, Constantine MJ, Hollaender A (eds) Tissue culture in forestry and agriculture. Plenum, New York, pp 271–287Google Scholar
  3. Amerson HV, Frampton LJ, Mott RL, Spaine PC (1988) Tissue culture of conifers using loblolly pine as a model. In: Hanover JW, Keathley DE (eds) Genetic manipulation of woody plants. Plenum, New York, pp 117–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bajaj YPS (ed) (1986) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol I: Trees I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown CL, Lawrence RH (1968) Culture of pine callus on a defined medium. For Sci 14: 62–64Google Scholar
  6. Dogra PD (1978) Morphology, development and nomenclature of conifer embryo. Phytomorphology 28: 307–322Google Scholar
  7. Dogra PD (1980) Embryogeny of gymnosperms and taxonomy — an assessment. In: Nair PKK (ed) Glimpses in plant research, Vikas, New Delhi, pp 114–128Google Scholar
  8. Dogra PD (1983) Reproductive biology of conifers and its application in forestry and forest genetics. Phytomorphology 33: 142–156Google Scholar
  9. Dogra PD (1984) The embryology, breeding systems and seed sterility in Cupressacea — a monograph. In: Nair PKK (ed) Glimpses in plant research. Vikas, New Delhi, pp 1–126Google Scholar
  10. Doyle J (1963) Proembryogeny in Pinus in relation to that in other conifers — a survey. Proc R Ir Acad 62B: 181–216Google Scholar
  11. Durzan DJ (1980) Progress and promise in forest genetics. In: Paper science and technology. The cutting edge: Proc 50th Annu Conf Inst Pap Chem, Appleton, WI, May 8–10, 1978, pp 31–60Google Scholar
  12. Durzan DJ (1982) Cell and tissue culture in forest industry. In: Bonga J, Durzan DJ (eds) Tissue culture in forestry. Nijhoff/Junk, The Hague, pp 36–71Google Scholar
  13. Durzan DJ (1988a) Process control in somatic polyembryogenesis. In: Hallgren J-E (ed) Molecular genetics of forest trees. Frans Kempe Symp, Swedish Agric Univ, Umea, pp 147–186Google Scholar
  14. Durzan DJ (1988b) Somatic polyembryogenesis for the multiplication of tree crops. Biotech Genet Eng Rev 6: 339–376Google Scholar
  15. Durzan DJ (1988c) Genetic variation, biotechnology and somatic polyembryogenesis in conifers. In: Proc 24th Int Congr Genetics, Toronto, Can, Abstr 35: 3342Google Scholar
  16. Durzan DJ (1989) Physiological aspects of somatic polyembryogenesis in conifers. In: Proc Int Symp Forest tree physiology, Nancy, Fr, Sept 26–30. Ann Sci For 46 (Suppl): 101–107Google Scholar
  17. Durzan DJ, Campbell RA (1974) Prospect for the mass production of improved stock of forest trees by cell and tissue culture. Can J For Res 4: 151–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Durzan DJ, Durzan PE (1990) Future technologies: model-reference control systems for the scale-up of embryogenesis and polyembryogenesis in suspension cultures. In: Debergh P, Zimmerman RH (eds) Micropropagation. Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 389–426Google Scholar
  19. Durzan DJ, Gupta PK (1987) Somatic embryogenesis and polyembryogenesis in Douglas fir cell suspension cultures. Plant Sci 52: 229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Durzan DJ, Gupta PK (1988) Somatic embryogenesis and polyembryogenesis in conifers. Adv Biotechnol Process 9: 53–81Google Scholar
  21. Dwinell LD, Kuhlman EG, Blakeslee GM (1981) Pitch canker of southern pines. In: Nelson PE, Thoussoun TA, Cook RJ (eds) Fusarium disease biology and taxonomy. PA State Univ Press, University Park, PA, pp 188–194Google Scholar
  22. Franklin EC (1972) Genetic load in loblolly pine. Am Nat 106: 262–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Greenwood MS (1981) Effect of age on vegetative growth characteristics by asexual propagules of loblolly pine. In: Proc 16th S For Tree improvement Conf, Blacksburg, Virg, pp 16–18Google Scholar
  24. Gresshoff PM, Doy C (1972) Development and differentiation of haploid Lycopersicon exculantum. Planta 107: 161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1985) Shoot multiplication from mature trees of Douglas fir and sugar pine. Plant Cell Rep 4: 177–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1986a) Somatic polyembryogenesis from callus of mature sugar pine embryos. Biotechnology 4: 643–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1986b) Plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from subcultured callus of mature embryos of Picea abies. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 22: 685–688Google Scholar
  28. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1987a) Biotechnology of somatic polyembryogenesis and plantlet regeneration of loblolly pine. Biotechnology 5: 147–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1987b) Somatic embryos from protoplasts of loblolly pine proembryonal cells. Biotechnology 5: 710–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gupta PK, Shaw D, Durzan DJ (1987a) Loblolly pine. In: Bonga JM, Durzan DJ (eds) Cell and tissue culture in forestry, vol 3. Nijhoff/Junk, The Hague, pp 101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ, Finkle BJ (1987b) Somatic polyembryogenesis in embryonal cell masses of Picea abies, Pinus taeda after freezing in liquid N2. Can J For Res 17: 1130–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gupta PK, Dandekar AM, Durzan DJ (1988) Somatic proembryo formation and transient expression of luciferase gene in Douglas fir and loblolly pine protoplasts. Plant Sci 58: 85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hall K (1980) Biology and genetics. Introduction. In: Proc Conf Paper science and technology — the cutting edge. Inst Pap Chem, Appleton, WI, pp 15–17Google Scholar
  34. Hoffard WH (1982) Recent development in management of insect pests of loblolly pine. In: Proc Symp loblolly pine ecosystem (east region), Raleigh, N C, Dec 8–10, pp 182–187Google Scholar
  35. Jett JB, Talbert JT (1982) The place of wood specific gravity in advanced generation seed orchard and breeding programs. S J Appl For 6: 177–180Google Scholar
  36. Kuhlman EG (1982) Disease in stand management of loblolly pine. In: Proc Symp loblolly pine ecosystem (east region), Raleigh, N C, Dec 8–10, pp 188–197Google Scholar
  37. Kuhlman EG, Hodges CS, Froelich RC (1976) Minimizing losses to Fomes annosus in the southern United States. In: USDA For Sery Res Pap, SE For Exp Stn, Asheville, N C, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  38. Lambeth CC, McCullough RB, Wells 00 (1984) Seed source movement and tree improvement in the Western Gulf region. In: Proc Symp loblolly pine ecosystem (west region), Jackson, Mississippi, March 20–22, pp 71–86Google Scholar
  39. Litvay JD, Johnson MA, Verma D, Einspahr D, Weyrauch K (1981) Conifer suspension culture medium development using analytical data from developing seeds. In: Inst Paper Chem Tech Rep Ser 115: 1–17Google Scholar
  40. Mehra-Palta A, Smeltzer RH, Mott RL (1978) Hormonal control of induced organogenesis experiments with excised plant parts of loblolly pine. TAPPI J 61: 37–40Google Scholar
  41. Mott RL (1981) Tree. In: Conger BV (ed) Cloning agricultural plants via in vitro techniques. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 217–254Google Scholar
  42. Mott RL, Amerson HV (1981) A tissue culture process for the clonal production of loblolly pine plantlets. Agric Res Sery Tech Bull 271, Raleigh, N C, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  43. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for the rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ow DW, Wood KV, Deluca M, Jeffery C, DeWet D, Helinski DR, Howell SH (1986) Stable transformation of luciferase gene from firefly and regeneration of transgenic plants. Science 234: 856–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Redenbaugh K, Paasch B, Nichol J, Kossler M, Viss P, Walker K (1986) Somatic seeds: encapsulation of asexual plant embryos. Biotechnology 4: 797–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sederoff R, Stomp AM, Chilton WC, Moore LW (1986) Gene transfer into loblolly pine by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biotechnology 4: 647–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sheffield RM, Knight HA (1982) Loblolly pine resources in southeast region. In: Proc Symp loblolly pine ecosystem (east region), Raleigh, N C, Dec 8–10, pp 7–24Google Scholar
  48. Singh H (1978) Embryology of gymnosperms. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, vol 10, pt 2. Bornträger, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  49. Sinnott EW (1960) Plant morphogenesis. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Sorensen FC (1982) The roles of polyembryony and embryo viability in the genetic systems of conifers. Evolution 36: 725–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Talbert JT, Weir RJ, Arnold RD (1985) Cost and benefits of a mature first generation loblolly pine tree improvement programme. J For 83: 162–166Google Scholar
  52. Taras AM (1982) Properties of uses of loblolly pine. In: Proc Symp loblolly pine ecosystem (east region), Raleigh, N C, Dec 8–10, pp 233–245Google Scholar
  53. Teasdale RD, Rugini E (1983) High yield preparation of viable protoplasts from suspension cultured loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and subsequent regeneration to callus. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 2: 253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Teasdale RD, Dawson PA, Woolhouse HW (1986) Mineral nutrient requirement of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) cell suspension culture. Plant Physiol 82: 942–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Timmis R, Abo El-Nil MM, Stonecypher RW (1986) Potential genetic gain through tissue culture. In: Bonga JM, Durzan DJ (eds) Cell and tissue culture in forestry. Nijhoff, The Hague, pp 198–215 van Buijtenen JP, Shaw D (1985) Vegetative propagation of loblolly pine. In: Proc Int IUFRU Symp Nursery management of southern pines, Alabama Exp Stn, Auburn, Aug 4–9, pp 10–11Google Scholar
  56. van Buijtenen JP, Toliver J, Bower R, Wendal M (1975) Mass production of loblolly pine and slashpine cuttings. Tree Plant 26: 4–6Google Scholar
  57. Wahlenberg WG (1960) Loblolly pine. Sch For, Duke Univ, Durham, NCGoogle Scholar
  58. Weir RJ, Talbert JT, McKeand SE (1982) Trends in loblolly pine improvement in the southeastern United States. In: Proc Symp loblolly pine ecosystem (east region), Raleigh, N C, Dec 8–10, pp 102–114Google Scholar
  59. White JW (1984) Loblolly pine — with emphasis on its history. In: Proc Symp Loblolly pine ecosystem (west region), Jackson, Mississippi, March 20–22, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  60. Zobel BJ (1982) Loblolly pine in retrospect. In: Proc Symp Loblolly pine ecosystem (east region), Raleigh, N C, Dec 8–10, pp 1–15Google Scholar
  61. Zobel BJ, van Wyk G, Stahl P (1987) Growing exotic forests. Wiley-Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. K. Gupta
    • 1
  • D. J. Durzan
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Environmental HorticultureUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations