Advertisement

Trees III pp 304-316 | Cite as

Egg-Cone Pine (Pinus oocarpa Schiede)

  • O. J. Schwarz
  • R. M. Beaty
  • E. O. Franco
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 16)

Abstract

Pinus oocarpa Schiede belongs to the closed-cone pine group (Oocarpae) of the Central American region that contains four other closely related species (Barnes and Styles 1983). The species is known by a number of descriptive common names, including pino ocote, pino colorado (Robbins 1983), and egg-cone pine (Rushforth 1987). Its gross morphology is that of a typical pine (Fig. 1). The tree grows to a height of 12 to 18 min its native habitat (Anonymous 1962), achieving a diameter of 75 cm. Exceptional sites can produce trees 45 m tall and 1 m in girth at breast height (Robbins 1983). Fascicles contain needles mostly in groups of five, sometimes three or four, and rarely six (Styles et al. 1982; Loock 1977). Female cones are borne in groups of up to three, being ovoid to ovoid-conic (egg-shaped) when closed, and are generally persistent on the tree after maturity (Styles et al. 1982). Robbins (1983) describes the tree’s form as “...generally good, with a straight bole and a moderate to light branching habit when growing in stands, with the crown forming 1 /4 to 1/3 of the bole height. Open grown trees have large, deep crowns and fairly coarse branching.” Young trees will sprout from the root collar region (Greaves 1982) or higher up (Robbins 1983) after injury by fire or grazing. Stem kill may occur repetitively over several seasons because of frequent fires. Repetitive coppicing will occur until the absence of fire allows the tree to grow to a more fire-tolerant size (Chable 1967).

Keywords

Adventitious Shoot Bark Beetle Seed Orchard Mature Zygotic Embryo Root Induction Medium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdullah AA, Yeoman MM, Grace J (1989) Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Tenore). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 5: Trees II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 507–525Google Scholar
  2. Ahuja MR, Muhs HJ (1985) In vitro techniques in clonal propagation of forest tree species. In: Schafer-Menuhr A (ed) In vitro techniques, propagation and long-term storage. Nijhoff/Junk, Boston, pp 41–49Google Scholar
  3. Amerson HV, Frampton LJ Jr, Mott RL, Spaine PC (1988) Tissue culture of conifers using Loblolly pine as a model. In: Hanover JW, Keathley DE (eds) Genetic manipulation of woody plants. Plenum, New York, pp 117–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anon (1962) Seminar and study tour of Latin-American conifers. Publ Espec, Inst Nacl Invest For, Secret Agric Ganad, Mexico, vol 1 (English edn)Google Scholar
  5. Anon (1969) Report of the first session of the FAO panel of experts on forest gene resources. FAO Rome, FO: FGR/ 1 /RepGoogle Scholar
  6. Bajaj YPS (ed) (1986) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 1: Trees I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes RD, Styles BT (1983) The closed-cone pines of Mexico and Central America. Commonw For Rev 62 (2): 81–84Google Scholar
  8. Beaty RM (1987) The development of adventitious buds in Pinus oocarpa. MS Thesis, Univ Tenn, KnoxvilleGoogle Scholar
  9. Bornman CH (1983) Possibilities and constraints in the regeneration of trees from cotyledonary needles of Picea abies in vitro. Physiol Plant 57: 5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Browne FG (1968) Pests and diseases of forest plantation trees. An annotated list of the principle species occuring in the British Commonwealth. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Chable AC (1967) Reforestation in the Republic of Honduras, Central America. Ceiba (English edn) 13 (2): 1–56Google Scholar
  12. Cheah K-T, Cheng T-Y (1978) Histological analysis of adventitious bud formation in cultured Douglas-fir cotyledons. Am J Bot 65: 845–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng T-Y (1977) Factors affecting adventitious bud formation on cotyledon culture of Douglas-fir. Plant Sci Lett 9: 179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coleman WK, Thorpe TA (1977) In vitro culture of western red cedar (Thuja plicata). I. Plantlet formation. Bot Gaz 138: 298–304Google Scholar
  15. Critchfield WB, Little EL Jr (1966) Geographic distribution of the pines of the world. USDA For Serv, Misc Publ 991Google Scholar
  16. David H, de Boucaud M-T, Gaultier J-M, David A (1986) Sustained division of protoplast-derived cells from primary leaves of Pinus pinaster, factors affecting growth and change in nuclear DNA content. Tree Physiol 1: 21–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farnum P, Timmis R, Kulp JL (1983) Biotechnology of forest yield. Science 219: 694–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ferreira M, Kageyama PY (1978) Programme for genetic improvement of Pinus oocarpa Schiede in Brazil by the IPEF. In: Nikles DG, Burley J, Barnes RD (eds) Proc Joint Worksh Brisbane, Queensland, Aust, 4–7 April. IUFRO Working Parties S2.02.08 Tropical Species Provenances, and 52.03. 01 Breeding Tropical Species. Commonw For Inst, Oxford, pp 643–654Google Scholar
  19. Floh EIS, Handro W (1986) Tissue and cell culture of Pinus species. In: Somers DA, Gengenbach BG, Biesboer DD, Hackett WP, Green CE (eds) 6th Int Congr Plant tissue and cell culture, IAPTC. Univ Minn, Minneapolis, Abstr 449, p 393Google Scholar
  20. Franco EO (1983) Micropropagation of Pinus oocarpa Schiede and Cupressus lusitanica Miller. MS Thesis, Univ Tenn, KnoxvilleGoogle Scholar
  21. Franco EO, Schwarz OJ (1985) Micropropagation of two tropical conifers: Pinus oocarpa Schiede and Cupressus lusitanica Miller. In: Henke RR, Hughes KW, Constantin MJ, Hollaender A (eds) Tissue culture in forestry and agriculture. Plenum, New York, pp 195–213Google Scholar
  22. Gavidia AT (1978) Producao mundial de sementes em pinus tropicais e sub-tropicais. Floresta 9(2):9–17 Greaves A (1982) Pinus oocarpa. For Abstr 43 (9): 503–532Google Scholar
  23. Greaves A, Kemp RH (1977) International provenance trials of Pinus oocarpa Schiede. In: Nikles DG, Burley J, Barnes RD (eds) Proc Joint Worksh Progress and problems of genetic improvement of tropical forest trees, vol 2. Commonw For Inst, Oxford, pp 552–561Google Scholar
  24. Hawkes JG (1976) Introduction. In: Burley J, Styles BT (eds) Tropical trees variation, breeding and conservation. Academic Press, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Hughes CE, Robbins AMJ (1982) Seed stand establishment procedures for Pinus oocarpa and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in the natural forests of Central America. Commonw For Rev 61 (2): 107–1 13Google Scholar
  26. Karnosky DF (1981) Potential for forest tree improvement via tissue culture. BioScience 31:114–120 Kemp RH (1973) Status of the G.F.I. international provenance trial of Pinus oocarpa Schiede. In: Burley J, Nikles DG (eds) Proc Joint Meet Tropical provenance and progeny research and international cooperation. Commonw For Inst, Oxford, pp 76–82Google Scholar
  27. Kemp RH (1978) Pinus oocarpa Schiede: Research and development needs. In: Nikles DG, Burley J, Barnes RD (eds) Proc Joint Worksh Progress and problems of genetic improvement of tropical forest trees, vol 2. Commow For Inst, Oxford, pp 655–660Google Scholar
  28. Kirby EG, David A (1988) Use of protoplasts and cell culture for physiological and genetic studies of conifers. In: Hanover JW, Keathley DE (eds) Genetic manipulation of woody plants. Plenum, New York, pp 185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kirby EG, Shall(ME (1982) Surface structural analysis of cultured cotyledons of Douglas-fir. Can J Bot 60: 2729–2733Google Scholar
  30. Kleinschmidt J (1974) A programme for large scale cutting propagation of Norway spruce. NZJ For Sci 4: 359–366Google Scholar
  31. Laine E, David H, David A (1988) Callus formation from cotyledon protoplasts of Pinus oocarpa and Pinus patula. Physiol Plant 72: 374–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lind ML, Staba J (1961) Peppermint and spearmint tissue culture. I. Callus formation and submerged culture. Lloydia 24: 139–145Google Scholar
  33. Longman KA (1976) Conservation and utilization of gene resources by vegetative multiplication of tropical trees. In: Burley J, Styles BT (eds) Tropical trees variation, breeding and conservation. Academic Press, New York London, pp 19–24Google Scholar
  34. Loock EEM (1977) The pines of Mexico and British Honduras. Dep For Republic of South Africa, Pretoria. Bull 35Google Scholar
  35. Maynard CA (1986) Population genetics of forest trees: Implications for the application of in vitro techniques. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 22: 231–233Google Scholar
  36. Mirov NT (1967) The genus Pinus. Ronald, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Momoh ZO (1966) Towards the control of damping-off. Bull Nig For Dep 26 (3): 3–4Google Scholar
  38. Momoh ZO (1976) Synthesis of mycorrhiza on Pinus oocarpa. Ann Appl Biol 82(2):221–226 Morel G, Wetmore RH (1951) Fern callus tissue culture. Am J Bot 38: 141–143Google Scholar
  39. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nitsch JP, Nitsch C (1965) Néoformations de fleurs in vitro chez une espèce de jours courts: Plumbago indica. Ann Physiol Veg 7: 251–258Google Scholar
  41. Olatoye ST (1966) A report on mycorrhizal inoculations (INV 317). Tech Note, Fed Dep For Res Nig 33 Ordish G (1966) Pine bark beetle in Honduras. SPAN 9 (2): 121–123Google Scholar
  42. Patel KR, Berlyn GP (1982) Genetic instability of multiple buds of Pinus coulteri regenerated from tissue culture. Can J For Res 12: 93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Reddy MAR (1969) Damping-off in conifer nurseries in India. Indian For 95 (7): 475–479Google Scholar
  44. Robbins AMJ (1983) Pinus oocarpa Scheide. Danida For Seed Centre, Krogerupvaj 3 A, DK-3050 Humlebaek, Den. Seed Leafl 3Google Scholar
  45. Rushforth KD (1987) Conifers. Facts on File Publications, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Schenk RU, Hildebrant AC (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can J Bot 50: 199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schieber ER (1967) Pine cone rust in the highlands of Guatemala. Plant Dis Rep 51(1):44–46 Sommer HE, Brown CL, Kormanik PP (1975) Differentiation of plantlets in longleaf pine (Pinuspalustris Mill.) tissue culture in vitro. Bot Gaz 136: 196–200Google Scholar
  48. Styles BT, Stead JW, Rolph KJ (1982) Studies of variation in Central American pines putative hybridization between Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis and P. oocarpa II. Turrialba 32 (3): 229–242Google Scholar
  49. Timmis R, El-Nil A, Stonecypher RW (1987) Potential genetic gain through tissue culture. In: Bonga JM, Durzan DJ (eds) Cell and tissue culture in forestry, vol 1. General principles and biotechnology. Nijhoff, Boston, pp 198–215Google Scholar
  50. Wolffsohn A (1984) Estudios Silvaculturales de Pinus oocarpa Schiede en la Republica de Honduras. Corp Hondur Desarrollo For. Centro Doc Inf Agropec, Secret Recurs Nat, Tegucigalpa, Hondur, MonogrGoogle Scholar
  51. Yeung EC, Aitkin J, Biondi S, Thorpe TA (1981) Shoot histogenesis in cotyledon explants of radiata pine. Bot Gaz 142 (4): 494–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. J. Schwarz
    • 1
  • R. M. Beaty
    • 1
  • E. O. Franco
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyThe University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  2. 2.Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad de San CarlosCindad UniversitariaZona 12Guatemala

Personalised recommendations